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Polymers 2017, 9(9), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9090392

Dry-Spun Neat Cellulose Nanofibril Filaments: Influence of Drying Temperature and Nanofibril Structure on Filament Properties

1
Laboratory of Renewable Nanomaterials, School of Forest Resources and Advanced Structures and Composites Center, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
2
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
3
School of Forest Resources and Advanced Structures and Composites Center, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were spun into filaments directly from suspension without the aid of solvents. The influence of starting material properties and drying temperature on the properties of filaments produced from three different CNF suspensions was studied. Refiner-produced CNF was ground using a microgrinder at grinding times of 50 and 100 minutes. Filament spinning was performed using a syringe pump-heat gun setting at three drying temperatures of 210 °C, 320 °C and 430 °C. The structure of starting CNF materials was first evaluated using a combination of optical and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Surface free energy analysis and attenuated total reflectance—Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR–FTIR) were used to study changes in hydrophobicity due to grinding. Morphology of the filaments was studied using SEM micrographs. The influence of different drying temperatures and grinding times on mechanical properties of the CNF filaments were further investigated through tensile tests and results were compared using statistical analysis .It was observed that drying temperature did not significantly influence the tensile properties of the filaments while cellulose nanofiber suspension type (grinding time) had a significant influence and improved mechanical properties. FTIR results confirmed an increase in crystallinity index and decrease in hydroxyl group availability due to grinding. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose nanofibrils; filaments; spinning; drying temperature cellulose nanofibrils; filaments; spinning; drying temperature
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ghasemi, S.; Tajvidi, M.; Bousfield, D.W.; Gardner, D.J.; Gramlich, W.M. Dry-Spun Neat Cellulose Nanofibril Filaments: Influence of Drying Temperature and Nanofibril Structure on Filament Properties. Polymers 2017, 9, 392.

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