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Polymers 2017, 9(9), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9090391

Gallic Acid-Loaded Gel Formulation Combats Skin Oxidative Stress: Development, Characterization and Ex Vivo Biological Assays

1
Medicine Department, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), 04023-062 Sao Paulo, Brazil
2
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14800-903 Araraquara, Brazil
3
Department of Food Science, São Paulo University (USP), 05508-000 Sao Paulo, Brazil
4
Institute of Environmental, Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), 09913-030 Diadema, Brazil
5
Faculty of Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-871 Campinas, Brazil
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance of Polymers Applied to Biomedical Applications: Biointerface)
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Abstract

Oxidative stress, which is a result of overproduction and accumulation of free radicals, is the main cause of several skin degenerative diseases, such as aging. Polyphenols, such as gallic acid, are an important class of naturally occurring antioxidants. They have emerged as strong antioxidants that can be used as active cosmetics. The purpose of this study was to develop a gallic acid-loaded cosmetic gel formulation and characterize it using rheological, mechanical, and bioadhesive tests. Its antioxidant effect in the stratum corneum was evaluated by a non-invasive method. According to the characterization tests, the formulation exhibited skin adhesiveness and pseudoplastic behavior without thixotropy, rendering it suitable for use as a cosmetic formulation. Furthermore, the non-invasive method indicated the antioxidant effect in the stratum corneum, with the global lipid peroxide reduction being 33.97 ± 11.66%. Thus, we were able to develop a promising gallic acid-loaded gel formulation that could reduce lipid peroxides and thus combat skin oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; gallic acid; polymers; skin administration antioxidants; gallic acid; polymers; skin administration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Monteiro e Silva, S.A.; Calixto, G.M.F.; Cajado, J.; de Carvalho, P.C.A.; Rodero, C.F.; Chorilli, M.; Leonardi, G.R. Gallic Acid-Loaded Gel Formulation Combats Skin Oxidative Stress: Development, Characterization and Ex Vivo Biological Assays. Polymers 2017, 9, 391.

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