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Article

Optimal Recovery of Valuable Biomaterials, Chondroitin Sulfate and Bioapatites, from Central Skeleton Wastes of Blue Shark

1
Group of Recycling and Valorisation of Waste Materials (REVAL), Marine Research Institute (IIM-CSIC), Eduardo Cabello, 6. Vigo, 36208 Galicia, Spain
2
New Materials Group, Department of Applied Physics, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, University of Vigo, IISGS, MTI, 36310 Vigo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(11), 2613; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112613
Received: 6 October 2020 / Revised: 1 November 2020 / Accepted: 3 November 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Circular and Green Polymer Science)
The industrial filleting of blue shark (Prionace glauca) led to the generation of a large number of central skeletons of low interest to fishmeal plants handling such wastes. In this context, the present study describes the optimization of the hydrolysis process (pH 8.35, T 58 °C, 1% (v/w) of alcalase and t = 4 h) to produce chondroitin sulfate (CS) together with the recovery of bioapatites. Then, that hydrolysate was chemically treated with an optimal alkaline-hydroalcoholic-saline solution (0.48 M of NaOH, 1.07 volumes of EtOH and 2.5 g/L of NaCl) and finally purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration (30 kDa) to obtain glycosaminoglycan with a purity of 97% and a productive yield of 2.8% (w/w of skeleton). The size of the biopolymer (CS) was of 58 kDa with prevalence of 6S-GalNAc sulfation (4S/6S ratio of 0.25), 12% of GlcA 2S-GalNAc 6S and 6% of non-sulfated disaccharides. Crude bioapatites were purified by pyrolysis and FT-Raman and XRD techniques confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)], with a molar mass of 502.3 g/mol, embedded in the organic matrix of the skeleton. The mineralized tissues of blue shark are promising marine sources for the extraction of high value biomaterials with clinical application in bone and tissue regeneration and are still completely unexplored. View Full-Text
Keywords: chondroitin sulfate isolation; Prionace glauca skeletons; bioapatite recovery; physicochemical characterization of biomaterials; process optimisation chondroitin sulfate isolation; Prionace glauca skeletons; bioapatite recovery; physicochemical characterization of biomaterials; process optimisation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vázquez, J.A.; Fraguas, J.; González, P.; Serra, J.; Valcarcel, J. Optimal Recovery of Valuable Biomaterials, Chondroitin Sulfate and Bioapatites, from Central Skeleton Wastes of Blue Shark. Polymers 2020, 12, 2613. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112613

AMA Style

Vázquez JA, Fraguas J, González P, Serra J, Valcarcel J. Optimal Recovery of Valuable Biomaterials, Chondroitin Sulfate and Bioapatites, from Central Skeleton Wastes of Blue Shark. Polymers. 2020; 12(11):2613. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112613

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vázquez, José Antonio, Javier Fraguas, Pío González, Julia Serra, and Jesus Valcarcel. 2020. "Optimal Recovery of Valuable Biomaterials, Chondroitin Sulfate and Bioapatites, from Central Skeleton Wastes of Blue Shark" Polymers 12, no. 11: 2613. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112613

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