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New Directions in Metal Phosphonate and Phosphinate Chemistry

1
Energy Safety Research Institute, Swansea University, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
2
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Christian-Albrechts-University, Max-Eyth-Str. 2, 24118 Kiel, Germany
3
Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Richard-Willstaetter-Str. 11, 12489 Berlin, Germany
4
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Husinec-Řež 1001, 250 68 Řež, Czech Republic
5
EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, Purdie Building, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK
6
Crystal Engineering, Growth, and Design Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Crete GR-71003 Heraklion, Greece
7
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnologies, Via Elce di Sotto n. 8, 06123 Perugia, Italy
8
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Via del Liceo 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy
9
Flemish Institute for Technological Research—VITO, Sustainable Materials Department, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium
10
Depto. Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Campus de Teatinos s/n, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(5), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9050270
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Phosphonates and Phosphinates)

Abstract

In September 2018, the First European Workshop on Metal Phosphonates Chemistry brought together some prominent researchers in the field of metal phosphonates and phosphinates with the aim of discussing past and current research efforts and identifying future directions. The scope of this perspective article is to provide a critical overview of the topics discussed during the workshop, which are divided into two main areas: synthesis and characterisation, and applications. In terms of synthetic methods, there has been a push towards cleaner and more efficient approaches. This has led to the introduction of high-throughput synthesis and mechanochemical synthesis. The recent success of metal–organic frameworks has also promoted renewed interest in the synthesis of porous metal phosphonates and phosphinates. Regarding characterisation, the main advances are the development of electron diffraction as a tool for crystal structure determination and the deployment of in situ characterisation techniques, which have allowed for a better understanding of reaction pathways. In terms of applications, metal phosphonates have been found to be suitable materials for several purposes: they have been employed as heterogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of fine chemicals, as solid sorbents for gas separation, notably CO2 capture, as materials for electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells and rechargeable batteries, and as matrices for drug delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal phosphonates and phosphinates; layered materials; metal–organic frameworks; synthesis; X-ray and electron diffraction; in situ characterisation; heterogeneous catalysis; gas sorption/separation; proton conduction; rechargeable batteries; drug delivery metal phosphonates and phosphinates; layered materials; metal–organic frameworks; synthesis; X-ray and electron diffraction; in situ characterisation; heterogeneous catalysis; gas sorption/separation; proton conduction; rechargeable batteries; drug delivery
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shearan, S.J.; Stock, N.; Emmerling, F.; Demel, J.; Wright, P.A.; Demadis, K.D.; Vassaki, M.; Costantino, F.; Vivani, R.; Sallard, S.; Ruiz Salcedo, I.; Cabeza, A.; Taddei, M. New Directions in Metal Phosphonate and Phosphinate Chemistry. Crystals 2019, 9, 270.

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