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Open AccessArticle

Reconfigurable Millimeter-Wave Components Based on Liquid Crystal Technology for Smart Applications

1
Institute of Microwave Engineering and Photonics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany
2
Deutsche Telekom Technik GmbH, 64295 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Crystals 2020, 10(5), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10050346
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 22 April 2020 / Accepted: 23 April 2020 / Published: 27 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Liquid Crystal Technology)
This paper presents recent development of tunable microwave liquid crystal (LC) components in the lower millimeter wave (mmW) regime up to the W-band. With the utilization of increasing frequency, conventional metallic waveguide structures prove to be impractical for LC-based components. In particular, the integration of the electric bias network is extremely challenging. Therefore, dielectric waveguides are a promising alternative to conventional waveguides, since electrodes can be easily integrated in the open structure of dielectric waveguides. The numerous subcategories of dielectric waveguides offer a high degree of freedom in designing smart millimeter wave components such as tunable phase shifters, filters and steerable antennas. Recent research resulted in many different realizations, which are analyzed in this paper. The first demonstrators of phased array antennas with integrated LC-based phase shifters are reviewed and compared. In addition, beam steering with a single antenna type is shown. Furthermore, the possibility to realize tunable filters using LC-filled dielectric waveguides is demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid crystal; millimeter wave devices; steerable antennas; dielectric waveguide; tunable filters liquid crystal; millimeter wave devices; steerable antennas; dielectric waveguide; tunable filters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Polat, E.; Tesmer, H.; Reese, R.; Nickel, M.; Wang, D.; Schumacher, P.; Jakoby, R.; Maune, H. Reconfigurable Millimeter-Wave Components Based on Liquid Crystal Technology for Smart Applications. Crystals 2020, 10, 346.

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