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Catalysts 2018, 8(8), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8080329

Oxygen Reduction Reaction and Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Catalyzed by Pd–Ru Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Porous Carbon Nanosheets

1
Guangzhou Key Laboratory for Surface Chemistry of Energy Materials, New Energy Research Institute, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006, China
2
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment and Pollution Control, Guangdong Provincial Engineering and Technology Research Center for Environmental Risk Prevention and Emergency Disposal, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006, China
3
Department of Clinical Medicine, Fuzhou Medical College of Nanchang University, Fuzhou 344000, China
4
Department of Physics & Engineering, Frostburg State University, Frostburg, MD 21532–2303, USA
5
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California, CA 95064, USA
These authors contributed equally.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction)
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Abstract

Developing bi-functional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is crucial for enhancing the energy transfer efficiency of metal–air batteries and fuel cells, as well as producing hydrogen with a high purity. Herein, a series of Pd–Ru alloyed nanoparticles encapsulated in porous carbon nanosheets (CNs) were synthesized and employed as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for both ORR and HER. The TEM measurements showed that Pd–Ru nanoparticles, with a size of approximately 1–5 nm, were uniformly dispersed on the carbon nanosheets. The crystal and electronic structures of the PdxRu100−x/CNs series were revealed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-prepared samples exhibited effective ORR activity in alkaline media and excellent HER activity in both alkaline and acid solutions. The Pd50Ru50/CNs sample displayed the best activity and stability among the series, which is comparable and superior to that of commercial 10% Pd/C. For ORR, the Pd50Ru50/CNs catalyst exhibited an onset potential of 0.903 V vs. RHE (Reversible Hydrogen Electrode) and 11.4% decrease of the current density after 30,000 s of continuous operation in stability test. For HER, the Pd50Ru50/CNs catalyst displayed an overpotential of 37.3 mV and 45.1 mV at 10 mA cm−2 in 0.1 M KOH and 0.5 M H2SO4, respectively. The strategy for encapsulating bimetallic alloys within porous carbon materials is promising for fabricating sustainable energy toward electrocatalysts with multiple electrocatalytic activities for energy related applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pd–Ru alloys; porous carbon nanosheets; bifunctional electrocatalyst; oxygen electroreduction; hydrogen evolution reaction Pd–Ru alloys; porous carbon nanosheets; bifunctional electrocatalyst; oxygen electroreduction; hydrogen evolution reaction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tian, J.; Wu, W.; Tang, Z.; Wu, Y.; Burns, R.; Tichnell, B.; Liu, Z.; Chen, S. Oxygen Reduction Reaction and Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Catalyzed by Pd–Ru Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Porous Carbon Nanosheets. Catalysts 2018, 8, 329.

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