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Review

Preoperative Differentiation of Uterine Leiomyomas and Leiomyosarcomas: Current Possibilities and Future Directions

1
I Chair and Department of Oncological Gynaecology and Gynaecology, Student Scientific Association, Medical University of Lublin, 20-059 Lublin, Poland
2
I Chair and Department of Oncological Gynaecology and Gynaecology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-059 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Oncology, Gynecological Oncology, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
4
Centre for Gynecologic Oncology Amsterdam (CGOA), Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek-Netherlands Cancer Institute (Avl-NKI) and University Medical Centra (UMC), 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Justus P. Beier
Cancers 2022, 14(8), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14081966
Received: 18 March 2022 / Revised: 11 April 2022 / Accepted: 11 April 2022 / Published: 13 April 2022
Uterine sarcomas are the second most common unexpected malignancy diagnosed after surgery. It is worrisome, as its preoperative diagnosing can impact the choice of the treatment method, including surgery. Therefore, nowadays, many researchers are trying to find innovative methods to differentiate benign and malignant lesions of the uterus preoperatively. The review of the current literature showed that the use of more than one parameter in specific diagnostic scales is one of the most effective methods. Moreover, machine learning models and artificial intelligence (AI) are hope-giving directions, which may help in preoperative ULMS and ULM distinguishment. In order to collect a large amount of ULMS patients, multicenter databases seem necessary.
The distinguishing of uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMS) and uterine leiomyomas (ULM) before the operation and histopathological evaluation of tissue is one of the current challenges for clinicians and researchers. Recently, a few new and innovative methods have been developed. However, researchers are trying to create different scales analyzing available parameters and to combine them with imaging methods with the aim of ULMs and ULM preoperative differentiation ULMs and ULM. Moreover, it has been observed that the technology, meaning machine learning models and artificial intelligence (AI), is entering the world of medicine, including gynecology. Therefore, we can predict the diagnosis not only through symptoms, laboratory tests or imaging methods, but also, we can base it on AI. What is the best option to differentiate ULM and ULMS preoperatively? In our review, we focus on the possible methods to diagnose uterine lesions effectively, including clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, imaging methods, molecular aspects, available scales, and AI. In addition, considering costs and availability, we list the most promising methods to be implemented and investigated on a larger scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: leiomyosarcoma (LMS); leiomyoma (LM); uterine fibroids; preoperative differentiation leiomyosarcoma (LMS); leiomyoma (LM); uterine fibroids; preoperative differentiation
MDPI and ACS Style

Żak, K.; Zaremba, B.; Rajtak, A.; Kotarski, J.; Amant, F.; Bobiński, M. Preoperative Differentiation of Uterine Leiomyomas and Leiomyosarcomas: Current Possibilities and Future Directions. Cancers 2022, 14, 1966. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14081966

AMA Style

Żak K, Zaremba B, Rajtak A, Kotarski J, Amant F, Bobiński M. Preoperative Differentiation of Uterine Leiomyomas and Leiomyosarcomas: Current Possibilities and Future Directions. Cancers. 2022; 14(8):1966. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14081966

Chicago/Turabian Style

Żak, Klaudia, Bartłomiej Zaremba, Alicja Rajtak, Jan Kotarski, Frédéric Amant, and Marcin Bobiński. 2022. "Preoperative Differentiation of Uterine Leiomyomas and Leiomyosarcomas: Current Possibilities and Future Directions" Cancers 14, no. 8: 1966. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14081966

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