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Article

The Significance of Prostate Specific Antigen Persistence in Prostate Cancer Risk Groups on Long-Term Oncological Outcomes

1
Medical Academy, Department of Urology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Department of Applied Mathematics, Kaunas University of Technology, 44249 Kaunas, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pierre Jean Lamy, Christophe Hennequin, Mathieu Roumiguie and Xavier Rebillard
Cancers 2021, 13(10), 2453; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102453
Received: 25 April 2021 / Revised: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 15 May 2021 / Published: 18 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer)
The current prostate cancer guidelines recommend performing the first prostate-specific antigen measurement at three months after radical prostatectomy. However, at an earlier measurement, persistence (≥0.1 ng/mL) of this biomarker could be found in up to 30% of cases, depending on the prostate cancer risk factors. Recent reports have demonstrated an increasing interest in prostate-specific antigen persistence as a possible additional predictor of disease progression and cancer-specific survival. However, the data remain scant, with weak evidence. We assessed the relationship between prostate-specific antigen persistence and long-term oncological outcomes within prostate cancer risk groups. We found that persistence of this biomarker could be used as an independent predictor of worse long-term outcomes in high-risk prostate cancer patients, while in intermediate-risk patients, this parameter significantly predicts only biochemical recurrence and has no impact on the outcomes in low-risk patients.
Objective: To assess the significance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) persistence at the first measurement after radical prostatectomy (RP) on long-term outcomes in different prostate cancer risk groups. Methods: Persistent PSA was defined as ≥0.1 ng/mL at 4–8 weeks after RP. Patients were stratified into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, according to the preoperative PSA, pathological stage, grade group and lymph nodes status. The ten-year cumulative incidence of biochemical recurrence (BCR), metastases, cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and overall mortality (OM) were calculated in patients with undetectable and persistent PSA in different PCa-risk groups. Multivariate regression analyses depicted the significance of PSA persistence on each study endpoint. Results: Of all 1225 men, in 246 (20.1%), PSA persistence was detected. These men had an increased risk of BCR (hazard ratio (HR) 4.2, p < 0.0001), metastases (HR: 2.7, p = 0.002), CRM (HR: 5.5, p = 0.002) and OM (HR: 1.8, p = 0.01) compared to the men with undetectable PSA. The same significance of PSA persistence on each study endpoint was found in the high-risk group (HR: 2.5 to 6.2, p = 0.02 to p < 0.0001). In the intermediate-risk group, PSA persistence was found as a predictor of BCR (HR: 3.9, p < 0.0001), while, in the low-risk group, PSA persistence was not detected as a significant predictor of outcomes after RP. Conclusions: Persistent PSA could be used as an independent predictor of worse long-term outcomes in high-risk PCa patients, while, in intermediate-risk patients, this parameter significantly predicts only biochemical recurrence and has no impact on the outcomes in low-risk PCa patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; PSA persistence; risk groups; radical prostatectomy; outcomes prostate cancer; PSA persistence; risk groups; radical prostatectomy; outcomes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Milonas, D.; Venclovas, Z.; Sasnauskas, G.; Ruzgas, T. The Significance of Prostate Specific Antigen Persistence in Prostate Cancer Risk Groups on Long-Term Oncological Outcomes. Cancers 2021, 13, 2453. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102453

AMA Style

Milonas D, Venclovas Z, Sasnauskas G, Ruzgas T. The Significance of Prostate Specific Antigen Persistence in Prostate Cancer Risk Groups on Long-Term Oncological Outcomes. Cancers. 2021; 13(10):2453. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102453

Chicago/Turabian Style

Milonas, Daimantas, Zilvinas Venclovas, Gustas Sasnauskas, and Tomas Ruzgas. 2021. "The Significance of Prostate Specific Antigen Persistence in Prostate Cancer Risk Groups on Long-Term Oncological Outcomes" Cancers 13, no. 10: 2453. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102453

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