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The Role of DNA/Histone Modifying Enzymes and Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

1,2,3, 1,2,3 and 1,3,*
1
Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group, Research Center of Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (GEBC CI-IPOP), R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
2
Department of Pathology, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPOP), R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
3
Department of Pathology and Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto (ICBAS-UP), Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-513 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11010006
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Histone Modification in Cancer)
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Abstract

It is well established that cancer cells exhibit alterations in chromatin structure and accessibility. Indeed, the dysregulation of many protein-coding players with enzymatic activity (DNA and histone-modifying enzymes) and chromatin remodelers have been depicted in various tumor models in recent years. Still, little attention has been directed towards testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs)—representing the most common neoplasm among young adult Caucasian men—with most studies focusing on exploring the role of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and DNA demethylases (TETs). TGCTs represent a complex tumor model, associated with developmental and embryogenesis-related phenomena, and display seldom (cyto)genetic aberrations, leaving room for Epigenetics to explain such morphological and clinical diversity. Herein, we have summarized the major findings that were reported in literature regarding the dysregulation of DNA/histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelers in TGCTs. Additionally, we performed in silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database to find the most relevant of those players in TGCTs. We concluded that several DNA/histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelers may serve as biomarkers for subtyping, dictating prognosis and survival, and, possibly, for serving as targets of directed, less toxic therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: testicular germ-cell tumors; histone modifications; chromatin remodeling; methylation; epigenetics; biomarkers testicular germ-cell tumors; histone modifications; chromatin remodeling; methylation; epigenetics; biomarkers
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Lobo, J.; Henrique, R.; Jerónimo, C. The Role of DNA/Histone Modifying Enzymes and Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors. Cancers 2019, 11, 6.

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