Next Article in Journal
Immune Response to Chlamydophila abortus POMP91B Protein in the Context of Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP); Role of Antigen in the Orientation of Immune Response
Next Article in Special Issue
Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Oxazolone-Induced Delayed Type Hypersensitivity Reaction in the Adult Yucatan Pigs. A Useful Model for Drug Development and Validation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2009, 1(1), 37-58;

Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

Southern Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA/1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
Received: 11 August 2009 / Revised: 22 September 2009 / Accepted: 24 September 2009 / Published: 25 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1112 KB, uploaded 25 September 2009]   |  


Biosynthesis of the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs) requires the activity of more than 27 enzymes. The roles in biosynthesis of newly described enzymes are discussed in this review. We suggest that HypC catalyzes the oxidation of norsolorinic acid anthrone; AvfA (AflI), the ring-closure step in formation of hydroxyversicolorone; HypB, the second oxidation step in conversion of O-methylsterigmatocystin to AF; and HypE and NorA (AflE), the final two steps in AFB1 formation. HypD, an integral membrane protein, affects fungal development and lowers AF production while AflJ (AflS), has a partial methyltransferase domain that may be important in its function as a transcriptional co-activator. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosynthesis; oxidation; enzymes; Aspergillus; secondary metabolism biosynthesis; oxidation; enzymes; Aspergillus; secondary metabolism

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ehrlich, K.C. Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis. Toxins 2009, 1, 37-58.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top