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Open AccessArticle

Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance

1
School of Medicine and Statistical Consulting Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia
2
Statistical Consulting Services, National Institute of Applied Statistics Research Australia, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia
3
School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7126-7142; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095327
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: older people; body composition; physical function; upper body strength; lean body mass; protein older people; body composition; physical function; upper body strength; lean body mass; protein
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Charlton, K.; Batterham, M.; Langford, K.; Lateo, J.; Brock, E.; Walton, K.; Lyons-Wall, P.; Eisenhauer, K.; Green, N.; McLean, C. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7126-7142.

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