Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e.
, glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), hemoglobin A1c
and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1), and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r2
= 0.32, p
< 0.001) of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p
≤ 0.006) associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p
= 0.001) associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p
< 0.001), but not of sons (p
= 0.65) (Sex-interaction: p
= 0.042). In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance.
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