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Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, Locked Bag 20000, Waurn Ponds, Geelong VIC 3220 Melbourne, Australia
George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney and Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney 2050, Australia
WHO Collaborating Centre on Population Salt Reduction, George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Sydney 2050, Australia
Clinical Diabetes and Epidemiology, Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, Melbourne 3004, Australia
Environmental Health Branch, New South Wales Health, Sydney 2059, Australia
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney 2141, Australia
St Vincent’s Health Network, Sydney, 2010, Australia
Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3BD, UK
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney 2050, Australia
School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10501-10512;
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 14 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt; sodium; sodium chloride; diet; regional; urinary sodium; Australia salt; sodium; sodium chloride; diet; regional; urinary sodium; Australia
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Nowson, C.; Lim, K.; Grimes, C.; O’Halloran, S.; Land, M.A.; Webster, J.; Shaw, J.; Chalmers, J.; Smith, W.; Flood, V.; Woodward, M.; Neal, B. Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014. Nutrients 2015, 7, 10501-10512.

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