Metabolic syndrome is associated with usual dietary patterns that may be involved in enterotypes. We aimed to understand the potential relationship of enterotypes and dietary patterns to influence metabolic syndrome in the Koreans. Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)-VI in 2014, metabolic parameters were also analyzed among the dietary patterns classified by principal component analysis in Korean adults. The fecal microbiota data of 1199 Korean adults collected in 2014 were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Enterotypes were classified based on Dirichlet multinomial mixtures (DMM) by Mothur v.1.36. The functional abundance of fecal bacteria was analyzed using the PICRUSt2 pipeline. Korean adults were clustered into three dietary patterns including Korean-style balanced diets (KBD, 20.4%), rice-based diets (RBD, 17.2%), and Western-style diets (WSD, 62.4%) in KNHANES. The incidence of metabolic syndrome was lowered in the order of RBD, WSD, and KBD. The participants having a KBD had lower serum C-reactive protein and triglyceride concentrations than those with RBD and WSD (p
< 0.05). Three types of fecal bacteria were classified as Ruminococcaceae
type (ET-R, 28.7%), Prevotella
type (ET-P, 52.2%), and Bacteroides
type (ET-B, 42.1%; p
< 0.05). ET-P had a higher abundance of Prevotella copri,
while ET-R contained a higher abundance of Alistipes
, Akkermansia muciniphila
, Bifidobacterium adolescentis
, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
. ET-B had a higher abundance of the order Bilophila
< 0.05). Metabolism of propanoate, starch, and sucrose in fecal microbiome was higher in ET-P and ET-R, whereas fatty acid metabolism was enhanced in ET-B. Fecal microbiota in ET-P and ET-B had higher lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis activity than that in ET-R. The metabolic results of KBD and RBD were consistent with ET-R and ET-P’s gut microbiota metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, Korean enterotypes of ET-P, ET-B, and ET-R were associated with RBD, WSD, and KBD, respectively. This study suggests a potential link between dietary patterns, metabolic syndrome, and enterotypes among Korean adults.
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