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Review

Gut-Brain-Microbiota Axis: Antibiotics and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

1
Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, 06570 Ankara, Turkey
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, HacettepeUniversity, Sıhhiye, 06110 Ankara, Turkey
3
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Etiler, 06330 Ankara, Turkey
4
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Science, Gazi University, Beşevler, 06560 Ankara, Turkey
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Instituto de Investigación y Postgrado, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Central de Chile, 8330507 Santiago, Chile
6
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
7
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giacomo Caio
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020389
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 23 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
Gut microbiota composition and function are major areas of research for functional gastrointestinal disorders. There is a connection between gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system and this is mediated by neurotransmitters, inflammatory cytokines, the vagus nerve and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Functional gastrointestinal disorders are prevalent diseases affecting more than one third of the population. The etiology of these disorders is not clarified. Visceral hyperalgesia is the main hypothesis for explaining clinical symptoms, however gut-brain axis disorder is a new terminology for functional disorders. In this review, microbiota-gut-brain axis connection pathways and related disorders are discussed. Antibiotics are widely used in developed countries and recent evidence indicates antibiotic-induced dysbiosis as an important factor for functional disorders. Antibiotics exert negative effects on gut microbiota composition and functions. Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis is a major factor for occurrence of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. Cognitive and mood disorders are also frequent in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Animal and human trials show strong evidence for the causal relationship between gut microbiota and brain functions. Therapeutic implications of these newly defined pathogenic pathways are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; gut microbiome; gut-brain axis; functional bowel disorders; irritable bowel syndrome; antibiotics; probiotics gut microbiota; gut microbiome; gut-brain axis; functional bowel disorders; irritable bowel syndrome; antibiotics; probiotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karakan, T.; Ozkul, C.; Küpeli Akkol, E.; Bilici, S.; Sobarzo-Sánchez, E.; Capasso, R. Gut-Brain-Microbiota Axis: Antibiotics and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Nutrients 2021, 13, 389. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020389

AMA Style

Karakan T, Ozkul C, Küpeli Akkol E, Bilici S, Sobarzo-Sánchez E, Capasso R. Gut-Brain-Microbiota Axis: Antibiotics and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):389. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020389

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karakan, Tarkan; Ozkul, Ceren; Küpeli Akkol, Esra; Bilici, Saniye; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Capasso, Raffaele. 2021. "Gut-Brain-Microbiota Axis: Antibiotics and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 389. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020389

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