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Open AccessArticle

Resting Energy Expenditure Relationship with Macronutrients and Gestational Weight Gain: A Pilot Study

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College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
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Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Edson College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020450
Received: 2 January 2020 / Revised: 5 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 11 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Resting energy expenditure (REE) comprises 60% of total energy expenditure and variations may be associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) or maternal diet. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of metabolic tracking on GWG and the association with maternal macronutrients. Pregnant women aged 29.8 ± 4.9 years (78.6% non-Hispanic, White) with gestational age (GA) < 17 week were randomized to Breezing™ (n = 16) or control (n = 12) groups for 13 weeks. REE by Breezing™ indirect calorimetry, anthropometrics and dietary intake were collected every two weeks. Early (14–21 weeks), late (21–28 weeks), and overall (14–28 weeks) changes in macronutrients and GWG were calculated. The Breezing™ group had a significantly greater rate of GWG [F (1,23) = 6.8, p = 0.02] in the latter half of the second trimester. Late (−155.3 ± 309.2 vs. 207.1 ± 416.5 kcal, p = 0.01) and overall (−143.8 ± 339.2 vs. 191.8 ± 422.2 kcal, p = 0.03) changes in energy consumption were significantly different between Breezing™ and control groups, respectively. Early changes in REE were positively correlated with overall changes in carbohydrates (r = 0.58, p = 0.02). Regular metabolism tracking alone did not have an impact on GWG. Early shifts in REE might impact GWG later in pregnancy. Investigation in a larger population from preconception through postpartum is needed.
Keywords: maternal obesity; maternal nutrition; basal metabolic rate; pregnancy; pregnancy and nutrition; weight gain maternal obesity; maternal nutrition; basal metabolic rate; pregnancy; pregnancy and nutrition; weight gain
MDPI and ACS Style

Vander Wyst, K.B.; Buman, M.P.; Shaibi, G.Q.; Petrov, M.E.; Reifsnider, E.; Whisner, C.M. Resting Energy Expenditure Relationship with Macronutrients and Gestational Weight Gain: A Pilot Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 450.

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