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Child Consumption of Whole Fruit and Fruit Juice Following Six Months of Exposure to a Pediatric Fruit and Vegetable Prescription Program

Pain Severity and Vitamin D Deficiency in IBD Patients

Department of Research, Østfold Hospital, 1714 Grålum, Norway
Department of Medicine, Vestre Viken Bærum Hospital, 1346 Gjettum, Norway
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0318 Oslo, Norway
Department of Gastroenterology, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
Department of Gastroenterology, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Nordbyhagen, Norway
Department of Biostatistics, Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130 Oslo, Norway
Department of Gastroenterology, Stavanger University Hospital, 4068 Stavanger, Norway
Department of Medicine, Telemark Hospital, 3710 Skien, Norway
Department of Medicine, Innlandet Hospital, 2819 Gjøvik, Norway
Department of Research and Development, Vestfold Hospital, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway
Department of Gastroenterology, Østfold Hospital, 1714 Grålum, Norway
Department of Health Sciences, Østfold University College, 1757 Halden, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 26;
Received: 3 November 2019 / Revised: 10 December 2019 / Accepted: 18 December 2019 / Published: 20 December 2019
Background: Pain and vitamin D deficiency are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Disease activity, fatigue, frequent relapses, prior surgery and psychological factors all seem to influence the experience of pain in IBD. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with muscle and skeletal pain. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and severity of pain in patients with IBD, and to investigate the influence of other socio-demographic and psychological variables on the experience of pain. Methods: Patients with IBD were recruited from nine hospitals in Norway in a multicenter cross-sectional study. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) questionnaire was used to measure pain. Disease activity was assessed using clinical disease activity indices, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal calprotectin. Regression models were fitted to explore a possible association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and pain severity. Results: Of 407 patients included in the analyses, 229 (56%) had Crohn’s disease (CD) and 178 (44%) had ulcerative colitis (UC). Vitamin D deficiency was present in half (203/407) of patients. Presence of pain was reported by 76% (309/407). More severe pain was associated with female gender and increased disease activity scores, but not with increased CRP or fecal calprotectin. In CD, patients without prior intra-abdominal surgery reported more severe pain. In multivariate analyses, there was no association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and pain severity. Conclusions: In this study, no significant association between pain severity and vitamin D deficiency was revealed in patients with IBD. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D deficiency; pain severity; patient reported outcomes vitamin D deficiency; pain severity; patient reported outcomes
MDPI and ACS Style

Frigstad, S.O.; Høivik, M.L.; Jahnsen, J.; Cvancarova, M.; Grimstad, T.; Berset, I.P.; Huppertz-Hauss, G.; Hovde, Ø.; Bernklev, T.; Moum, B.; Jelsness-Jørgensen, L.-P. Pain Severity and Vitamin D Deficiency in IBD Patients. Nutrients 2020, 12, 26.

AMA Style

Frigstad SO, Høivik ML, Jahnsen J, Cvancarova M, Grimstad T, Berset IP, Huppertz-Hauss G, Hovde Ø, Bernklev T, Moum B, Jelsness-Jørgensen L-P. Pain Severity and Vitamin D Deficiency in IBD Patients. Nutrients. 2020; 12(1):26.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frigstad, Svein O.; Høivik, Marte L.; Jahnsen, Jørgen; Cvancarova, Milada; Grimstad, Tore; Berset, Ingrid P.; Huppertz-Hauss, Gert; Hovde, Øistein; Bernklev, Tomm; Moum, Bjørn; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter. 2020. "Pain Severity and Vitamin D Deficiency in IBD Patients" Nutrients 12, no. 1: 26.

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