Next Article in Journal
Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) on Bilirubin Concentrations in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: Sex-Specific GWAS Analysis and Gene-Diet Interactions in a Mediterranean Population
Next Article in Special Issue
Insulin Controls Triacylglycerol Synthesis through Control of Glycerol Metabolism and Despite Increased Lipogenesis
Previous Article in Journal
Nutrients 2009–2019: The Present and the Future of Nutrition
Review

Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, EPA and DHA: Bridging the Gap between Supply and Demand

1
Institute of Aquaculture, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
2
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Biology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
3
Department of Plant Sciences, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010089
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 4 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health)
The omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n-3) acids, are well accepted as being essential components of a healthy, balanced diet, having beneficial effects on development and in mitigating a range of pathological conditions. However, their global supply from all the traditional sources of these nutrients is insufficient to satisfy human nutritional requirements. For two decades there has been considerable research carried out into all possible alternatives to the main sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, marine fish oil and fishmeal, driven largely by the aquaculture sector, as both the major user and provider of EPA and DHA. In the last few years these efforts have focused increasingly on the development of entirely new supplies of n-3 LC-PUFA produced de novo. Recently, this has resulted in various new sources of EPA and/or DHA that are already available or likely to available in the near future. In this short review, we briefly summaries the current gap between supply and demand of EPA and DHA for human requirements, the role of aquaculture in providing n-3 LC-PUFA to human consumers, the range of potential novel sources, and suggest how these new products could be used effectively. We conclude that all the new sources have potentially important roles to play in increasing the supply of n-3 LC-PUFA so that they are available more widely and in higher concentrations providing more options and opportunities for human consumers to obtain sufficient EPA and DHA to support more healthy, balanced diets. View Full-Text
Keywords: eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; novel sources; microalgae; oilseed crops; genetic modification; aquaculture eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; novel sources; microalgae; oilseed crops; genetic modification; aquaculture
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Tocher, D.R.; Betancor, M.B.; Sprague, M.; Olsen, R.E.; Napier, J.A. Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, EPA and DHA: Bridging the Gap between Supply and Demand. Nutrients 2019, 11, 89. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010089

AMA Style

Tocher DR, Betancor MB, Sprague M, Olsen RE, Napier JA. Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, EPA and DHA: Bridging the Gap between Supply and Demand. Nutrients. 2019; 11(1):89. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010089

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tocher, Douglas R., Monica B. Betancor, Matthew Sprague, Rolf E. Olsen, and Johnathan A. Napier. 2019. "Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, EPA and DHA: Bridging the Gap between Supply and Demand" Nutrients 11, no. 1: 89. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010089

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop