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Open AccessArticle

Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Household Salt Iodine Content at the Sub-National Level in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal

1
Iodine Global Network, Ottawa, ON K1N 5C8, Canada
2
UNICEF, New York, NY 10017, USA
3
Statistics for Sustainable Development, Reading RG1 4QS, UK
4
Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland
5
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
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International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
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Cellule de Lutte Contre la Malnutrition, B.P. 45001 Dakar-Fann, Senegal
8
Nutrition Department, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana
9
Iodine Global Network, Seattle, WA 98107, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040508
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
Regression analyses of data from stratified, cluster sample, household iodine surveys in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal were conducted to identify factors associated with household access to adequately iodised salt. For all countries, in single variable analyses, household salt iodine was significantly different (p < 0.05) between strata (geographic areas with representative data, defined by survey design), and significantly higher (p < 0.05) among households: with better living standard scores, where the respondent knew about iodised salt and/or looked for iodised salt at purchase, using salt bought in a sealed package, or using refined grain salt. Other country-level associations were also found. Multiple variable analyses showed a significant association between salt iodine and strata (p < 0.001) in India, Ghana and Senegal and that salt grain type was significantly associated with estimated iodine content in all countries (p < 0.001). Salt iodine relative to the reference (coarse salt) ranged from 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) times higher for fine salt in Senegal to 3.6 (95% CI 2.6, 4.9) times higher for washed and 6.5 (95% CI 4.9, 8.8) times higher for refined salt in India. Sub-national data are required to monitor equity of access to adequately iodised salt. Improving household access to refined iodised salt in sealed packaging, would improve iodine intake from household salt in all four countries in this analysis, particularly in areas where there is significant small-scale salt production. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine deficiency; iodised salt; single variable regression; multiple variable regression iodine deficiency; iodised salt; single variable regression; multiple variable regression
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Knowles, J.; Kupka, R.; Dumble, S.; Garrett, G.S.; Pandav, C.S.; Yadav, K.; Nahar, B.; Touré, N.K.; Amoaful, E.F.; Gorstein, J. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Household Salt Iodine Content at the Sub-National Level in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal. Nutrients 2018, 10, 508.

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