Compilation and Validation of SAR and Optical Data Products for a Complete and Global Map of Inland/Ocean Water Tailored to the Climate Modeling Community
Earth and Life Institute—Environment, Université catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, 3073 Gümligen, Switzerland
Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, 5 Avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch/Alzette, Luxembourg
Brockmann-Consult GmbH, Max-Planck Str. 2, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
European Space Agency, 00044 Frascati, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Linda See, Deepak R. Mishra, Xiaofeng Li and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 6 May 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 11 January 2017
Accurate maps of surface water extent are of paramount importance for water management, satellite data processing and climate modeling. Several maps of water bodies based on remote sensing data have been released during the last decade. Nonetheless, none has a truly (90
S) global coverage while being thoroughly validated. This paper describes a global, spatially-complete (void-free) and accurate mask of inland/ocean water for the 2000–2012 period, built in the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This map results from the synergistic combination of multiple individual SAR and optical water body and auxiliary datasets. A key aspect of this work is the original and rigorous stratified random sampling designed for the quality assessment of binary classifications where one class is marginally distributed. Input and consolidated products were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively against a reference validation database of 2110 samples spread throughout the globe. Using all samples, overall accuracy was always very high among all products, between
. The CCI global map of open water bodies provided the best water class representation (F-score of
) compared to its constitutive inputs. When focusing on the challenging areas for water bodies’ mapping, such as shorelines, lakes and river banks, all products yielded substantially lower accuracy figures with overall accuracies ranging between
. The inland water area of the CCI global map of open water bodies was estimated to be 3.17 million km
± 0.24 million km
. The dataset is freely available through the ESA CCI Land Cover viewer.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lamarche, C.; Santoro, M.; Bontemps, S.; d’Andrimont, R.; Radoux, J.; Giustarini, L.; Brockmann, C.; Wevers, J.; Defourny, P.; Arino, O. Compilation and Validation of SAR and Optical Data Products for a Complete and Global Map of Inland/Ocean Water Tailored to the Climate Modeling Community. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 36.
Lamarche C, Santoro M, Bontemps S, d’Andrimont R, Radoux J, Giustarini L, Brockmann C, Wevers J, Defourny P, Arino O. Compilation and Validation of SAR and Optical Data Products for a Complete and Global Map of Inland/Ocean Water Tailored to the Climate Modeling Community. Remote Sensing. 2017; 9(1):36.
Lamarche, Céline; Santoro, Maurizio; Bontemps, Sophie; d’Andrimont, Raphaël; Radoux, Julien; Giustarini, Laura; Brockmann, Carsten; Wevers, Jan; Defourny, Pierre; Arino, Olivier. 2017. "Compilation and Validation of SAR and Optical Data Products for a Complete and Global Map of Inland/Ocean Water Tailored to the Climate Modeling Community." Remote Sens. 9, no. 1: 36.
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