Next Article in Journal
Hyperspectral Image Classification with Localized Graph Convolutional Filtering
Previous Article in Journal
Mapping 20 Years of Urban Expansion in 45 Urban Areas of Sub-Saharan Africa
 
 
Article

Earth Observation-Informed Risk Maps of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes scapularis in Central and Eastern Canada

1
Public Health Risk Sciences Division, National Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M1, Canada
2
Groupe de Recherche en Épidémiologie des Zoonoses et Santé Publique (GREZOSP), Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Monika Kuffer
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(3), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030524
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 27 January 2021 / Accepted: 28 January 2021 / Published: 2 February 2021
Climate change is facilitating the geographic range expansion of populations of the tick vector of Lyme disease Ixodes scapularis in Canada. Here, we characterize and map the spatio-temporal variability of environments suitable for I. scapularis using Earth observation (EO) data. A simple algorithm for I. scapularis occurrence (cumulative degree-days and forest: CSDF) was developed by combining cumulative annual surface degree-days above 0 °C and forest cover. To map the environmental risk of I. scapularis (risk of I. scapularis: RIS) in central and eastern Canada from 2000 to 2015, CSDF was adjusted using data from an I. scapularis population model. CSDF was validated using cumulative annual degree days >0 °C (CADD) from meteorological stations, and CSDF was strongly associated with CADD (n = 52, R2 > 0.86, p < 0.001). Data on field surveillance for I. scapularis ticks (2008 to 2018) were used to validate the risk maps. The presence of I. scapularis ticks was significantly associated with CSDF, and at a limit of 2800, sensitivity approached 100%. RIS increased over the study period, with the highest values in 2012 and the lowest in 2000. The RIS was on average higher in Ontario and Quebec compared to other provinces, and it was higher in the southern parts of the provinces. The proportion of the populated areas with a positive RIS increased on average in central and eastern Canada from 2000 to 2015. Predicted I. scapularis occurrence identifies areas with a more probable risk of tick bites, Lyme disease, and other I. scapularis-borne diseases, which can help guide targeted surveillance, prevention, and control interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ixodes scapularis; Lyme disease; risk maps; cumulative surface degree days; spatio-temporal variations; MODIS temperature and land cover products; earth observation; climate change Ixodes scapularis; Lyme disease; risk maps; cumulative surface degree days; spatio-temporal variations; MODIS temperature and land cover products; earth observation; climate change
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kotchi, S.O.; Bouchard, C.; Brazeau, S.; Ogden, N.H. Earth Observation-Informed Risk Maps of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes scapularis in Central and Eastern Canada. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 524. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030524

AMA Style

Kotchi SO, Bouchard C, Brazeau S, Ogden NH. Earth Observation-Informed Risk Maps of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes scapularis in Central and Eastern Canada. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(3):524. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030524

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kotchi, Serge Olivier, Catherine Bouchard, Stéphanie Brazeau, and Nicholas H. Ogden. 2021. "Earth Observation-Informed Risk Maps of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes scapularis in Central and Eastern Canada" Remote Sensing 13, no. 3: 524. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030524

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop