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Monitoring Quarry Area with Landsat Long Time-Series for Socioeconomic Study

Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(4), 517;
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Multi-temporal Remote Sensing Images)
PDF [7789 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


Quarry sites result from human activity, which includes the removal of original vegetation and the overlying soil to dig out stones for building use. Therefore, the dynamics of the quarry area provide a unique view of human mining activities. Actually, the topographic changes caused by mining activities are also a result of the development of the local economy. Thus, monitoring the quarry area can provide information about the policies of the economy and environmental protection. In this paper, we developed a combined method of machine learning classification and quarry region analysis to estimate the quarry area in a quarry region near Beijing. A temporal smoothing based on the classification results of all years was applied in post-processing to remove outliers and obtain gently changing sequences along the monitoring term. The method was applied to Landsat images to derive a quarry distribution map and quarry area time series from 1984 to 2017, revealing significant inter-annual variability. The time series revealed a five-stage development of the quarry area with different growth patterns. As the study region lies on two jurisdictions—Tianjin and Hebei—a comparison of the quarry area changes in the two jurisdictions was applied, which revealed that the different policies in the two regions could impose different impacts on the development of a quarry area. An analysis concerning the relationship between quarry area and gross regional product (GRP) was performed to explore the potential application on socioeconomic studies, and we found a strong positive correlation between quarry area and GRP in Langfang City, Hebei Province. These results demonstrate the potential benefit of annual monitoring over the long-term for socioeconomic studies, which can be used for mining decision making. View Full-Text
Keywords: quarry area; machine-learning; Landsat; annual monitoring; socioeconomic study quarry area; machine-learning; Landsat; annual monitoring; socioeconomic study

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, H.; Ma, Y.; Chen, F.; Liu, J.; Jiang, L.; Yao, W.; Yang, J. Monitoring Quarry Area with Landsat Long Time-Series for Socioeconomic Study. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 517.

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