A Hierarchical Pyramid for Food Waste Based on a Social Innovation Perspective
2. Literature Review
3. Materials and Methods
- Definition of the system boundaries of analysis: academic papers (research articles, and review articles) and all other useful documents;
- Classification context: a classification context was selected and defined, in order to distinguish between the academic literature and the referenced case studies;
- Data evaluation: the data were examined and divided according to the classification context, for identifying the pertinent issues and interpretation of results;
- Collecting publications and delimiting the field: the qualitative review analysis was limited to English and Italian peer-reviewed articles, institutional documents and case studies of specific projects. The Internet search was carried out during August 2020 and April 2021, without ta specific timespan, even if the field of application is new and recent;
- Data treatment: the data were compared, clustered according to their specific topic, and integrated in the FW hierarchical pyramid framework.
- Food from becoming SF (prevention);
- SF from becoming FW (human reuse);
- FW from becoming FL (animal reuse, material recycling, nutrient recovery, energy recovery).
5.2. Human Reuse
5.3. Animal Reuse
5.4. Material Recycling
5.5. Nutrient Recovery
5.6. Energy Recovery
5.7. Final Considerations
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Stages of Hierarchical Pyramid||SI Models||SI Activities (Case Studies)||References|
|Prevention||Alternative Food Networks (AFNs)/Short Food Supply Chains (SFSCs)||Solidarity Purchasing Groups||[48,49,50,51,52,53,54]|
|Farmer Producer Organization|
|Awareness and education campaigns||Love Food Hate Waste||[55,56,57,58,59,60]|
|Stop Wasting Food Movement|
|Human Re-Use||Food Recovery Activities (FRAs)||Avanzi Popolo 2.0||[5,19,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72]|
|Donating after the BBD|
|Surplus Food Retail, Processing & Service||Social Supermarkets||[73–80]|
|The Real Junk Food Project|
|Too good to go|
|Social or community fridges|
|Animal Re-Use||Social Campaigns for Animal Feeding||The Pig Idea|||
|Nutrient Recovery||Composting Communities||Layang-Layang||[96–99]|
|Energy Recovery||Community Anaerobic Digestion (AD)||Layang-Layang||[41,98,100–105]|
|Academy of Champions for Energy|
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Lombardi, M.; Costantino, M. A Hierarchical Pyramid for Food Waste Based on a Social Innovation Perspective. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4661. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094661
Lombardi M, Costantino M. A Hierarchical Pyramid for Food Waste Based on a Social Innovation Perspective. Sustainability. 2021; 13(9):4661. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094661Chicago/Turabian Style
Lombardi, Mariarosaria, and Marco Costantino. 2021. "A Hierarchical Pyramid for Food Waste Based on a Social Innovation Perspective" Sustainability 13, no. 9: 4661. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094661