The integration of battery energy storage systems (BESS) with renewable energy is a potential solution to address the disadvantages of renewable energy systems, which is irregular and intermittent power. In particular, residential BESS is advancing in numerous countries. The residential BESS connected to the photovoltaic system (PV) can store the PV power in the battery through charging, and supply the PV power, which was stored in the battery, to the load through discharging when there is no PV power. Therefore, the utilization of residential BESS with PV reduces the daily electric power consumption and the electricity bills that households have to charge. However, it is understood that there is no case of installing and using residential BESS in Korea yet. Most residential houses in Korea are apartment houses, and thus residential BESS can be used with balcony PV. This paper presents operation modes of residential BESS with balcony PV for apartment houses. The BESS capacity was estimated by considering the balcony PV capacity, which can be installed in households, and power consumption. The applicability of the residential BESS was analyzed through performance and economics evaluation under current and various conditions. The operation modes of BESS were divided into four types according to PV power supply priority and battery charging source, and a test took place in a demonstration house. The risk of fully discharging the battery has been discovered when PV power is first charged to the battery or when only PV power is charged with the battery. As a result, preferential charging of the battery with PV power and then with PV and grid power was found to be the most optimal operation mode. In addition, additional functions were proposed for residential BESS in apartment households. The results will contribute to effective application of residential BESS with balcony PV in the near future.
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