Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Data Description
2.2. Survey Design
2.3.1. Empirical Model
2.3.2. Framework for Analyzing GHG Emission Impacts
3.1. Empirical Results
3.2. Estimating Car Sharing Impacts on GHG Emissions
3.3. Effect of Increased EV Infrastructure on GHG Emissions
4. Discussion and Conclusions
4.1. Concluding Remarks and Contributions
4.2. Limitations and Future Research Topics
Conflicts of Interest
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|Monthly household income (USD 10)||<199||244||23.9%|
|Number of family members||1||98||9.6%|
|Education||Below secondary education||110||10.8%|
|Gasoline or diesel||For EVs: can drive 200 km with one full charge and vehicle can be charged at the rental station.|
|Fuel charging station supply rate|
|15%||Station supply rate refers to the availability of LPG fuel or EV charging stations (where the number and supply level of gasoline or diesel stations is 100%).|
|Economy, subcompact, or compact vehicle||e.g. Morning, Spark, Soul, Accent, Pride, Niro, Avante, K3, etc.|
|Mid-size or full-size vehicle||e.g. Sonata, K5, Grandeur, Genesis, K9, Chairman, etc.|
|SUV (Sports utility vehicle)||e.g. Tucson, Spotage, Tivoli, SantaFe, Trax, Orlando, etc.|
|Pickup & delivery|
|Provided||If pickup and delivery services are provided, a car sharing vehicle will be delivered to the door. Otherwise, a car sharing vehicle can be collected at the nearest station, which is approximately 15-min walking distance.|
|Allowed||If one-way trips are allowed, the vehicle can be returned to a different station than the one from which it was rented.|
|5||Refers to the total rental cost per hour (including fuel, rental duration and insurance). The price increases proportionally with additional rental duration.|
|Estimated variables used in calculation|
|Probability of choosing car sharing services and foregoing car ownership varies with car sharing attributes and individual characteristics.||Estimated value from conjoint experiment within the questionnaire survey|
|, ,||Car sharing use shifts from owned vehicles or public transit is calculated by multiplying travel distance and replacement rate. Replacement rate is based on car sharing attributes and individual characteristics.|
|Mobility change indicates increased or decreased travel distances due to the convenience of car sharing services.|
This value varies with car sharing attributes and between individuals.
|Fixed variables used in calculation|
|,|| (car sharing emission factor) and (owned car emission factor) are calculated by dividing the emission factor (gCO2e/L) by the vehicle fuel efficiency (km/L or km/kWh).|
The emission factor varies depending on vehicle fuel [gasoline = 2778.2 gCO2e/L, diesel = 3241.3 gCO2e/L, LPG = 2942.6 gCO2e/L, electricity = 393.3–865.1 gCO2e/kWh].
|Fuel efficiency||The fuel efficiency of car sharing vehicles differs as follows: gasoline/diesel (13.7 km/L), LPG (9.6 km/L), EV (5.4 km/kWh).||[31,32,33]|
|Conversion factor||This converts travel time on public transit to travel distance [0.35 km/min].|||
|,||Bus emission factor [57.3 g per person·km]|
Subway emission factor [26.0 g per person·km]
|Emissions from producing a car [4.6709 t CO2e per unit]|||
|Number of registered cars used to estimate the number of car owners [20,989,885 units]|||
|Number of daily bus users who have a driving license [9,620,591 people]|||
|Number of daily subway users who have a driving license [5,208,389 people]|||
|Number of vehicles sold per day in South Korea [4091 units]|||
|Variables||Mixed Logit Model 1||Binary Logit Model 2||Linear Regression Model|
|Mean (S.D.)||Std. Error||Estimate||Std. Error||Estimate||Std. Error||Estimate||Std. Error||Estimate||Std. Error|
|Car sharing attribute variable|
|Fuel type 1: LPG||−0.281 ***|
|0.076||0.517 **||0.250||0.047 **||0.020||0.063 ***||0.022||-||-|
|Fuel type 2: Electricity||0.132 ***|
|Station rate||0.481 ***|
|0.156||0.578 **||0.268||0.045 **||0.022||0.056 **||0.024||-||-|
|Car type 1 (economy)||−0.181 ***|
|Car type 2 (mid-size)||−0.136 ***|
|0.041||0.006||0.117||0.033 ***||0.012||0.037 ***||0.013||-||-|
|One-way trip option||0.433 ***|
|0.026||−0.009||0.090||0.031 ***||0.007||0.034 ***||0.008||0.006 **||0.003|
|Vehicle delivery||0.350 ***|
|0.007||−0.024 ***||0.008||−0.004 ***||0.001||−0.004 ***||0.001||−0.001 ***||0.000|
|No choice||−3.779 ***|
|Individual characteristic variables|
|Constant||-||-||−3.587 ***||0.549||0.146 ***||0.044||0.065||0.047||0.043 ***||0.015|
|Education||-||-||0.040 *||0.023||−0.007 ***||0.002||−0.002||0.002||−0.002 ***||0.001|
|Eco-friendly||-||-||0.377 ***||0.053||0.026 ***||0.004||0.029 ***||0.005||0.008 ***||0.002|
|Individual income||-||-||0.077 ***||0.018||0.002||0.001||0.005 ***||0.002||0.002 ***||0.001|
|Choice Alternative||Car sharing Vehicle A||Car sharingVehicle B||Car sharingVehicle C||-|
|Fuel charging station supply rate||100%||15%||5%||No choice|
|Fuel type||Gasoline or diesel||LPG||Electricity|
|Vehicle type||Mid-size or full-size vehicle||Mid-size or full-size vehicle||Mid-size or full-size vehicle|
|Pickup & delivery service||Not provided||Not provided||Not provided|
|One-way trip||Not allowed||Not allowed||Not allowed|
|Cost per hour (KRW)||10,000||10,000||10,000|
|Effects||Baseline Scenario||EV 50% Scenario||EV 100% Scenario|
(Shift from owned car)
(Shift from bus use)
(Shift from subway use)
|Effect 3 |
|Total Effect (daily)||784.27||2809.83||4835.40||−1461.24||1013.19||3487.63||−4611.70||−1579.20||1453.29|
|Total Effect (yearly)||286,257||1,025,589.36||1,764,921||−533 352||369,815.97||1,272,984||−1,683,269||−576,408.46||530,452|
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Jung, J.; Koo, Y. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions. Sustainability 2018, 10, 539. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020539
Jung J, Koo Y. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions. Sustainability. 2018; 10(2):539. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020539Chicago/Turabian Style
Jung, Jiyeon, and Yoonmo Koo. 2018. "Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions" Sustainability 10, no. 2: 539. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020539