Next Article in Journal
New Structure Sheds Light on Selective HIV-1 Genomic RNA Packaging
Next Article in Special Issue
Exosome Biogenesis, Regulation, and Function in Viral Infection
Previous Article in Journal
Oral Application of T4 Phage Induces Weak Antibody Production in the Gut and in the Blood
Previous Article in Special Issue
Regulation of the Host Antiviral State by Intercellular Communications
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Cloak and Dagger: Alternative Immune Evasion and Modulation Strategies of Poxviruses

Medical Research Council-Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Yorgo Modis and Stephen Graham
Viruses 2015, 7(8), 4800-4825;
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Exosomes)
PDF [910 KB, uploaded 25 August 2015]


As all viruses rely on cellular factors throughout their replication cycle, to be successful they must evolve strategies to evade and/or manipulate the defence mechanisms employed by the host cell. In addition to their expression of a wide array of host modulatory factors, several recent studies have suggested that poxviruses may have evolved unique mechanisms to shunt or evade host detection. These potential mechanisms include mimicry of apoptotic bodies by mature virions (MVs), the use of viral sub-structures termed lateral bodies for the packaging and delivery of host modulators, and the formation of a second, “cloaked” form of infectious extracellular virus (EVs). Here we discuss these various strategies and how they may facilitate poxvirus immune evasion. Finally we propose a model for the exploitation of the cellular exosome pathway for the formation of EVs. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus entry; exocytosis; exosome; vaccinia virus; immune evasion virus entry; exocytosis; exosome; vaccinia virus; immune evasion

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bidgood, S.R.; Mercer, J. Cloak and Dagger: Alternative Immune Evasion and Modulation Strategies of Poxviruses. Viruses 2015, 7, 4800-4825.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top