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Cloak and Dagger: Alternative Immune Evasion and Modulation Strategies of Poxviruses

by and *,†
Medical Research Council-Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Yorgo Modis and Stephen Graham
Viruses 2015, 7(8), 4800-4825; https://doi.org/10.3390/v7082844
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Exosomes)
As all viruses rely on cellular factors throughout their replication cycle, to be successful they must evolve strategies to evade and/or manipulate the defence mechanisms employed by the host cell. In addition to their expression of a wide array of host modulatory factors, several recent studies have suggested that poxviruses may have evolved unique mechanisms to shunt or evade host detection. These potential mechanisms include mimicry of apoptotic bodies by mature virions (MVs), the use of viral sub-structures termed lateral bodies for the packaging and delivery of host modulators, and the formation of a second, “cloaked” form of infectious extracellular virus (EVs). Here we discuss these various strategies and how they may facilitate poxvirus immune evasion. Finally we propose a model for the exploitation of the cellular exosome pathway for the formation of EVs. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus entry; exocytosis; exosome; vaccinia virus; immune evasion virus entry; exocytosis; exosome; vaccinia virus; immune evasion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bidgood, S.R.; Mercer, J. Cloak and Dagger: Alternative Immune Evasion and Modulation Strategies of Poxviruses. Viruses 2015, 7, 4800-4825. https://doi.org/10.3390/v7082844

AMA Style

Bidgood SR, Mercer J. Cloak and Dagger: Alternative Immune Evasion and Modulation Strategies of Poxviruses. Viruses. 2015; 7(8):4800-4825. https://doi.org/10.3390/v7082844

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bidgood, Susanna R., and Jason Mercer. 2015. "Cloak and Dagger: Alternative Immune Evasion and Modulation Strategies of Poxviruses" Viruses 7, no. 8: 4800-4825. https://doi.org/10.3390/v7082844

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