- freely available
Forests 2018, 9(9), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090578
Scope and Objectives of the Paper
2. Materials and Methods
- the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)’s C&I for the sustainable management of tropical forests;
- the Pan-European Forest Process on C&I for SFM under the Ministerial Conference for the Protection of Forests in Europe, known also as FOREST EUROPE;
- the Montréal Process on C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of temperate and boreal forests;
- the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) Tarapoto Process on C&I for the sustainability of Amazon forests, recently renamed the “process of harmonized C&I of ITTO–ACTO (Tarapoto) for the sustainability of the Amazon forests”;
- the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) C&I for the sustainable management of tropical forests in Southeast Asia;
- the Low Forest Cover Countries Process, also known as the Tehran Process;
- the African Timber Organization (ATO)/ITTO C&I process;
- the Dry-Zone Africa Process on C&I for the sustainable management of dry-zone forests in sub-Saharan countries;
- the Near East and North Africa (NENA) Process on C&I for sustainable management of dry-zone forests;
- the Lepaterique Process of Central America on C&I for SFM; and
- the Dry Forests in Asia Regional Initiative for the development and implementation of national-level C&I for the sustainable management of dry forests in Asia (also known as the India-Bhopal Process).
3.1. Impact on the Discourse of SFM
- facilitating societal consensus on how forests should be managed and what a society wants from its forests ;
- making general concepts of sustainable development and abstract concepts like socio-economic benefits more concrete and operational by specifying what should actually be measured ;
- increasing political commitment to SFM by providing a reference framework for SFM-related policies, enhancing the accountability and transparency of policy-making, and better integrating policy-making with evidence-based forest reporting. Today, the concept of SFM, as characterized by C&I for SFM, is embodied in many national forest programmes and forest-related planning documents [4,5,26]; and
- facilitating common understanding of SFM-related concepts, terms, and definitions .
3.2. Impact on Science Applications
3.3. Impact on Monitoring and Reporting of SFM
- Shaped, improved, and streamlined national reporting. C&I for SFM have been used as a framework and basis for national monitoring applications and reporting on SFM. Progress and adaptation of C&I-based monitoring instruments have been observed in many countries, and data collection has been streamlined. This is particularly important for the long-term development of national inventory systems, which have steadily improved to cover all aspects of SFM, as identified in C&I sets. The C&I sets have helped improve data availability, validity, and quality in areas not previously covered in forest-sector statistics, which generally focused on resource inventory and lacked social, environmental, economic, and cultural aspects [4,5,21,26,46,49].
- Contributed conceptually and practically to improvements in the comparability of time series of forest-related information within and between regions by supporting a common reporting framework known as the Collaborative Forest Resources Questionnaire (CFRQ) [5,26,49]. Since the beginning of FOREST EUROPE reporting on C&I, for example, efforts have been made to reduce the reporting burden and to enhance the coordination of data collection, with informal coordination between the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)/FAO process and regional and international C&I processes. FAO, the UNECE, FOREST EUROPE, ITTO, the Montréal Process, and the Observatory of Central African Forests all cooperated to harmonize data collection for the FRA 2015, the forthcoming FRA 2020 and the reports of various regional and international C&I processes. In 2018, ACTO started negotiating a memorandum of understanding with FAO that includes its support to also use the CFRQ to collect forest information for the Amazon region.
- Provided information of international relevance. C&I-based data collection has made forest-related data available to broader policy processes [5,50]. It has also contributed to reporting and assessment for a range of global policy goals, objectives, and targets, including the Non-Legally Binding Instrument (NLBI)’s Global Objectives on Forests, the UN Strategic Plan for Forests, and the CBD’s Aichi Targets.
- Provided the basis for the proposal and acceptance of indicators for reporting on forest-related SDG targets 15.1 and 15.2 . The whole SDG indicator set contains around 20 indicators that may be linked to forests in one way or another and two that specifically refer to forests: 15.1.1 ‘trends in forest cover’ and 15.2.1 ‘area of forest under sustainable forest management’, the latter of which includes five sub-indicators  which are included in most of the regional and international indicator sets.
- Provided a pool for the selection of a global core set of forest-related indicators [18,51], comprising a limited number of indicators necessary for monitoring progress towards international goals, objectives, and targets. The intention is to focus and prioritize monitoring and reporting efforts and avoid duplication. Key indicators as an information base for decision-makers and the broad public were developed recently as part of the Tarapoto process  and are under development in the FOREST EUROPE Process [9,53].
- Reduced multiple reporting burdens on emerging related issues by including recognized indicators from other international processes in their regional and international C&I sets. The ITTO, FOREST EUROPE, and Tehran Process include, for instance, indicators relevant to the CBD (e.g., biodiversity conservation measures in natural production forests, common forest bird species, and forest fragmentation), UNCCD (e.g., trends in forest land degradation, degraded forests, and landscape restored), the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (e.g., tree species in each of the CITES appendices) and the UNFCCC (e.g., changes in carbon stock in forest biomass, forest soils, and harvested wood products).
3.4. Impact on Sustainable Forest Management Practices
- The integration of stakeholder participation in forest management to ensure that a broad range of values are considered [17,24,28,32,56]. This is despite concerns that C&I processes are top-down and overly complex and sideline the knowledge and experience of forest communities, including Indigenous Peoples, in the developing world .
- Improving access to resource use rights. C&I have been used as references for national governments in providing a transparent system and rule base for granting use rights, including means for controlling and verification [22,35]. There is concern that, in some developing countries, a lack of local knowledge and resources to implement C&I may constrain the rights of rural communities because local government staff lack the knowledge and resources to support efforts to adhere to the C&I, making legal forest management prohibitively expensive .
- The development of forest certification. The concept of C&I served as a stepping stone for the development of forest certification schemes, which are market-driven instruments designed to improve market access for forest products that have produced according to good forest practices [4,22,35,60]. The importance of forest certification varies significantly across the world [15,61],
- Improve access to markets. C&I have been used in community forestry to increase access to local and international markets [22,35]. However, there is concern that smallholders and rural communities in developing countries have limited capacity to meet the specifications of C&I (e.g., in certification schemes), with the effect of constraining market access .
3.5. Impact on the Assessment of Progress towards SFM
- The first steps in the review of trends and benchmarks between countries. Time series data for some SFM indicators are available from the early 1950s (or before), and coverage has improved steadily, partly under the influence of C&I since the 1990s. In Europe, assessment prototypes were presented in “State of Europe’s Forests” reports in 2007 and 2011, and these will be subject to further revisions and development [8,23,62]. ITTO’s “Status of Tropical Forest Management” reports published in 2006 and 2011 [63,64] were carried out explicitly to assess progress towards SFM in the Organization’s tropical member countries using the ITTO C&I reporting framework. A third assessment is planned before 2020;
- The development of the UNECE pilot project, “System for the Evaluation of the Management of Forests” (SEMAFOR). SEMAFOR is based on the assessment of the sustainability of forest management in 20 European countries on the basis of the pan-European C&I for SFM, setting common thresholds, leading to a dialogue with national correspondents on threats to SFM and the policy measures being put in place to address identified issues ;
- Various forest-related global or regional goals, such as the SDGs (e.g., 15.2.1), the Global Forest Goals and their associated targets, and the Goals for European Forests and the European 2020 Targets for Forests. These have been set mostly independently of C&I but in related processes [4,8]. Further work—and close cooperation between the policy and technical levels—is required to use the data and insights developed in the C&I processes to monitor progress towards officially agreed goals.
3.6. Impact on Dialogue and Communication
- Facilitated deliberations and consultations between policy-makers and stakeholders, thus promoting stronger stakeholder participation and improved evidence-based decision-making in forest-related policy processes [5,28]. Some of the literature, on the other hand, points out that these processes have limited participation of forest communities in developing nations .
- Raised the attention and interest of other sectors in forest-related information, in particular energy, climate change, and biodiversity .
4.1. Impact on the Discourse of SFM
4.2. Impact on Science Applications
4.3. Impact on Monitoring and Reporting of SFM
4.3.1. Quantitative Information
4.3.2. Qualitative Information
4.4. Impact on Sustainable Forest Management Practices
4.5. Impact on the Assessment of Progress towards SFM
4.6. Impact on Dialogue and Communication
- The regional and international processes and the related sets of C&I for SFM are complex and too focused on issues of interest only to the forest sector. This complexity hinders the communication of forest-related issues to the public and to other sectors because information embedded in the C&I are difficult for many to comprehend.
- Most of the sets of C&I for SFM are static. This limits the ad hoc consideration of emerging politically relevant issues (e.g., climate change, ecosystem services, and bioeconomy) and hampers dialogue between and compatibility with other C&I processes. This is not an inherent shortcoming in the C&I approach, pointing, rather, to the need for ongoing review and adjustment of C&I frameworks. Such review and adjustment takes time and effort but is certainly possible—7 of the 11 regional and international C&I processes have revised their C&I at least once (and as many as four times) .
- In the last decade, the regional and international sets of C&I for SFM have raised the attention and interest of other sectors in forest-related information, particularly in the climate-change, biodiversity and energy sectors. Challenges remain in improving consistency between the various areas of policy that influence, and are influenced by, forests and forest management. Regional and international sets of C&I for SFM may help these sectors identify and incorporate new information by explicitly organizing available information and highlighting information deficiencies.
Conflicts of Interest
|ACTO||Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization|
|ASEAN||Association of Southeast Asian Nations|
|ATO||African Timber Organization|
|C&I||Criteria and Indicators|
|CBD||Convention on Biological Diversity|
|CFRQ||Collaborative Forest Resources Questionnaire|
|CITES||Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora|
|EFI||European Forest Institute|
|FAO||Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|
|FMU||Forest management unit|
|FRA||Forest Resource Assessment of the FAO|
|FSC||Forest Stewardship Council|
|ITTO||International Tropical Timber Organization|
|IUFRO||International Union of Forest Research Organizations|
|NENA||Near East and North Africa|
|NLBI||Non-Legally Binding Instrument|
|PEFC||Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification|
|SDG||Sustainable Development Goal|
|SEMAFOR||System for the Evaluation of the Management of Forests|
|SFM||Sustainable Forest Management|
|UNCCD||United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification|
|UNCED||United Nations Conference on Environment and Development|
|UNECE||United Nations Economic Commission for Europe|
|UNFCCC||United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change|
References and Notes
- General Assembly 2007: Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests (A/RES/62/98); United Nations: Bali, Indonesia, 2008.
- Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management. Available online: http://www.fao.org/forestry/ci/88506/en/ (accessed on 7 March 2018).
- Davis, K.; Kingsbury, B.; Merry, S. Indicators as a technology of global governance. Law Soc. Rev. 2012, 46, 71–104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Caswell, S.; Tomaselli, I.; Hirakuri, S. Indicating Progress: Uses and Impacts of Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management; ITTO Technical Series No. 42; ITTO: Yokohama, Japan, 2014; ISBN 978-4-86507-010-1. [Google Scholar]
- Baycheva, T.; Inhaizer, H.; Lier, M.; Prins, K.; Wolfslehner, B. Implementing Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Europe; European Forest Institute: Joensuu, Finland, 2013; ISBN 978-952-5980-04-2. [Google Scholar]
- Lammerts van Bueren, E.; Blom, E. Hierarchical Framework for the Formulation of Sustainable Forest Management Standards; Backhuys: Leiden, The Netherlands, 1997. [Google Scholar]
- Linser, S. Critical Analysis of The Basics for The Assessment of Sustainable Development by Indicators; Fortswissenschaftliche Fakultät der Universität Freiburg: Breisgau, Germany, 2002; ISBN 3-933548-17-9. [Google Scholar]
- Linser, S.; Wolfslehner, B. Report on the Mid-Term Evaluation: Meeting the Goals for European Forests and the European 2020 Targets for Forests; Forest Europe Liaison Unit: Madrid, Spain, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Linser, S. Background Information on Subsets of pan-European Indicators for SFM to address specific policy issues. In Proceedings of the 1st Meeting of the Expert Group on Implementation of the Updated pan-European Indicators for SFM, Zvolen, Slovakia, 24–25 January 2017. [Google Scholar]
- McCool, S.; Stankey, G. Representing the future: A framework for evaluating the utility of indicators in the search for sustainable forest management. In Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management; Raison, R., Brown, A., Flinn, D., Eds.; CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2001; ISBN 978-0851993928. [Google Scholar]
- Mendoza, G.; Prabhu, R. Fuzzy methods for assessing criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management. Ecol. Indic. 2003, 3, 227–236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Siry, J.; Cubbage, F.; Ahmed, M. Sustainable forest management: Global trends and opportunities. For. Policy Econ. 2005, 7, 551–561. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNECE. Pilot Project on the System for the Evaluation of the Management of Forests (SEMAFOR); Geneva Timber and Forest Discussion Paper 66; United Nations: Geneva, Switzerland, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Wolfslehner, B.; Linser, S.; Pülzl, H.; Bastrup-Birk, A.; Camia, A.; Marchetti, M. Forest bioeconomy—A new scope for sustainability indicators. In From Science to Policy; European Forest Institute: Joensuu, Finland, 2016; Volume 4, ISBN 978-952-5980-29-5. [Google Scholar]
- Linser, S.; Wolfslehner, B.; Asmar, F.; Bridge, S.R.; Guadalupe, V.; Gritten, D.; Jafari, M.; Johnson, S.; Laclau, P.; Robertson, G. 25 years of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: Why some intergovernmental C&I processes flourished while others faded. Forests 2018, 9, 515. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- FAO. Keeping an Eye on SDG 15—Working with Countries to Measure Indicators for Forests and Mountains. Available online: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i7334e.pdf (accessed on 1 June 2018).
- Natural Resources Canada; FAO. Proceedings of the International Expert Workshop on Strengthening Collaboration on Criteria and Indicators to Promote and Demonstrate Sustainable Forest Management, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 1–3 May 2016; FAO: Rome, Italy, 2016; Available online: http://www.fao.org/forestry/45401-051b882b24060ae2a238aed3c6cda3b70.pdf (accessed on 1 June 2018).
- Harisson, C. Mail Surveys and Paper Questionnaires. In Handbook of Survey Research; Emerald: Bingley, UK, 2010; ISBN 978-1-84855-224-1. [Google Scholar]
- Dillman, D.A.; Messer, B.L. Mixed-Mode Surveys. In Handbook of Survey Research; Emerald: Bingley, UK, 2010; ISBN 978-1-84855-224-1. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations. Earth Summit Agenda 21. The United Nations Program of Action from Rio; United Nations: Bali, Indonesia, 1992; Available online: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/dsd/agenda21/index.shtml (accessed on June 1992).
- Forest Europe. The pan-European policies and tools for sustainable forest management. In Forest Europe Policy Brief; Forest Europe Liaison Unit: Oslo, Norway, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Wolfslehner, B.; Linser, S.; Julve Larrubia, C.; Rametsteiner, E. Using Criteria and Indicators for SFM to Promote and Provide Incentives for the Transition to Sustainable Forestry Practices; FAO Working Paper; FAO: Rome, Italy, 2018; under review. [Google Scholar]
- Forest Europe; UNECE; FAO. State of Europe’s Forests 2011; Status and Trends in Sustainable Forest Management in Europe; Forest Europe Liaison Unit: Oslo, Norway, 2011; ISBN 978-82-92980-05-7. [Google Scholar]
- Linser, S. ÖWAD-Indikatorenset für Nachhaltige Waldbewirtschaftung; BMLFUW: Vienna, Austria, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Sarre, A.; Sabogal, C. Is SFM an impossible dream? Unasylva 2013, 240, 29–34. [Google Scholar]
- Baycheva-Merger, T.; Wolfslehner, B. Evaluating the implementation of the Pan-European Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management—A SWOT analysis. Ecol. Indic. 2016, 60, 1192–1199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Elgert, L. Global governance and sustainability indicators: The politics of expert knowledge. In Handbook of Critical Policy Studies; Fischer, F., Torgerson, D., Duranova, A., Orsini, M., Eds.; Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK, 2016; pp. 341–357. [Google Scholar]
- Caswell, S. The impacts of criteria and indicators. Trop. For. Updat. 2014, 22, 3–10. [Google Scholar]
- Grainger, A. Forest sustainability indicator systems as procedural policy tools in global environmental governance. J. Glob. Environ. Chang. 2012, 22, 147–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pokorny, B.; Adams, M. What do criteria and indicators assess? An analysis of five C&I sets relevant for forest management in the Brazilian Amazon. Int. For. Rev. 2003, 5, 20–28. [Google Scholar]
- Wijewardana, D. Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: The road travelled and the way ahead. Ecol. Ind. 2008, 8, 115–122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Natural Resources Canada. Proceedings of the Joint Workshop to Streamline Global Forest Reporting and Strengthen Collaboration among International Criteria and Indicator Processes; Natural Resources Canada: Victoria, BC, Canada, 2012; Available online: https://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/publications/download-pdf/33398 (accessed on 1 June 2018).
- Roux, D.J.; Rogers, K.H.; Biggs, H.C.; Ashton, P.J.; Sergeant, A. Bridging the science–management divide: Moving from unidirectional knowledge transfer to knowledge interfacing and sharing. Ecol. Soc. 2006, 11, 4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). Criteria and Indicators for the Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests; ITTO Policy Development Series 21; ITTO: Yokohama, Japan, 2016; ISBN 978-4-86507-028-6. [Google Scholar]
- Julve Larrubia, C.; Ross, K.; Wolfslehner, B.; Guldin, R.; Rametsteiner, E. Using Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management. A Way to Strengthen Results-Based Management of National Forest Programmes; FAO Forestry Policy and Institutions Working Paper 37; FAO: Rome, Italy, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers. Measuring Our Progress: Putting SFM into Practice across Canada and Beyond; Canadian Council of Forest Ministers: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Hock, B. Value-driven sustainable forest management in New Zealand. Int. J. Environ. Sustain. 2013, 8, 71–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Payn, T.W.; Barnard, T.D.; Cox, S.; Millard, L.; Novis, J.; Reid, A. Sustainable Forest Management Developments in New Zealand Seen through the Lens of the Montréal Process Criteria and Indicators (C&I) Framework; XIV World Forestry Congress: Durban, South Africa, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Singh, R.K.; Murty, H.R.; Gupta, S.K.; Dikshit, A.K. An overview of sustainability assessment methodologies. Ecol. Ind. 2009, 9, 189–212. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wolfslehner, B.; Vacik, H. Mapping indicator models: From intuitive problem structuring to quantified decision-making in sustainable forest management. Ecol. Ind. 2011, 11, 274–283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNCED. Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests; Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (A/CONF.151/26). Available online: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1 (accessed on June 1992).
- MacDicken, K.; Sola, P.; Hall, J.; Sabogal, C. Global progress toward sustainable forest management. For. Ecol. Manag. 2015, 352, 47–56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Prins, K. Synergies between forest resources assessment and indicators of sustainable forest management: The European experience. Unasylva 2002, 210, 65–73. [Google Scholar]
- FAO. Report of the International Conference on the Contribution of Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management: The Way Forward (CICI-2003); FAO: Guatemala City, Guatemala, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- FAO. Report of the FAO/ITTO Expert Consultation on Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management; FAO: Cebu City, Philippines, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- MCPFE. Inter-Criteria and Indicators Process Collaboration Workshop Report; A Collaborative Effort by the ITTO, the MCPFE, the Montreal Process, the FAO, the UNECE and the U.S. Forest Service; MCPFE: Warsaw, Poland, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- USDA Forest Service. Conference Proceedings: Forest Criteria and Indicators Analytical Framework and Report Workshop, Joensuu, Finland, 19–21 May 2008; General Technical Report GTR-WO-81; USDA Forest Service: Washington, DC, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Goto, T.; Sarsito, A. Co-chairs’ Summary Report. In Proceedings of the International Seminar on Challenges of Sustainable Forest Management—Integrating Environmental, Social, and Economic Values of Forests, Tokyo, Japan, 8–9 March 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Adam, M.C.; Kneeshaw, D. Local level criteria and indicator frameworks: A tool used to assess aboriginal forest ecosystem values. For. Ecol. Manag. 2008, 255, 2024–2037. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chirici, G.; McRoberts, R.; Winter, S.; Marchetti, M. National Forest Inventory Contributions to Forest Biodiversity Monitoring. For. Sci. 2012, 58, 257–268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations. Contribution of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and its members, regional and subregional organizations and processes, major groups and other stakeholders to the implementation of the United Nations strategic plan for forests 2017–2030. Note by the UNFF Secretariat. In E/CN.18/2018/3; United Nations: New York, NY, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Guadalupe, V.; (ACTO Secretariat, Brasilia, Brazil). Personal communication, 2018.
- Forest Europe. Report on Future Direction of Forest Europe. Part I: Results of the Questionnaire Survey; Forest Europe Liaison Unit: Bratislava, Slovakia, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- FAO. Strengthening Evidence-Based Forest Policy-Making. Linking Forest Monitoring with National Forest Programmes; Forestry Policy and Institutions Working Paper 33; FAO: Rome, Italy, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- FAO. Use of Sustainability Indicators in Forest Policy and Practice in Southeast Asia: Experiences, Lessons Learned, Needs and Potential for Further Development of Indicators for Enhanced Use; FAO: Bangkok, Thailand, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Sikor, T.; Gritten, D.; Atkinson, J.; Bao, H.; Dahal, G.; Duangsathaporn, K.; Hurahura, F.; Marona, S.; Maryudi, A.; Phanvilay, K.; et al. Community Forestry in Asia and the Pacific: Pathway to Inclusive Development; RECOFTC: Bangkok, Thailand, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Gritten, D.; Greijmans, M.; Lewis, S.; Atkinson, J.; Tol, S.; Tan, N.; Poudyal, B.; Bampton, J. An Uneven Playing Field: Regulatory barriers to communities making a living from the timber from their forests—Examples from Cambodia, Nepal, Vietnam. Forests 2015, 6, 3433–3451. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ahimin, O.; Mikissa, J.B.; Johnson, S.; N’Guessan Kouamé, F.; Kamanzi, K. Implementing Principles, Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Gabon. J. Sustain. For. 2018, 37, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Boscolo, M.; Snook, L.; Quevedo, L. Adoption of sustainable forest management practices in Bolivian timber concessions: A quantitative assessment. Int. For. Rev. 2009, 11, 514–523. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ahimin, O. Africa’s process for implementing PC&I. Trop. For. Updat. 2014, 22, 11–14. [Google Scholar]
- McDermott, C.; Irland, L.; Pacheco, P. Forest certification and legality initiatives in the Brazilian Amazon: Lessons for effective and equitable forest governance. For. Policy Econ. 2015, 50, 134–142. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Forest Europe. State of Europe’s Forests 2007; The MCPFE Report on Sustainable Forest Management in Europe; Forest Europe Liaison Unit: Warsaw, Poland, 2007; ISBN 978-83-922396-8-0. [Google Scholar]
- International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). Status of Tropical Forest Management 2005; ITTO Technical Series No. 24; ITTO: Yokohama, Japan, 2006; ISBN 4-902045-24-9. [Google Scholar]
- Blaser, J.; Sarre, A.; Poore, D.; Johnson, S. Status of Tropical Forest Management 2011; ITTO Technical Series No. 38; ITTO: Yokohama, Japan, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Shields, D.; Šolar, S.; Martin, W. The role of values and objectives in communicating indicators of sustainability. Ecol. Ind. 2002, 2, 149–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Solesbury, W. Evidence Based Policy: Whence It Came and Where It’s Going; Working Paper 1; ESRC; UK Centre for Evidence Based Policy and Practice: London, UK, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Collins, H.; Evans, B. Rethinking Expertise; The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, USA; London, UK, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Gardner, S. Developing Environmental Evidence-Based Policies. Available online: file:///M:/IUFRO%20WP/Literatur/Gardner_2009_%20Developing%20environmental%20evidence-based%20policies.html (accessed on 30 July 2018).
- Leshner, A. Science and Sustainability. Science 2002, 297, 897. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Prabhu, R.; Ruitenbeek, H.; Boyle, T.; Colfer, C. Between voodoo science and adaptive management: The role and research need of indicators for SFM. In Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management; Raison, R., Brown, A., Flinn, D., Eds.; CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- McDonald, G.T.; Lane, M.B. Converging global indicators for sustainable forest management. For. Policy Econ. 2004, 6, 63–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- FAO. Expert Workshop on Strengthening Collaboration on Criteria and Indicators to Promote and Demonstrate Sustainable Forest Management; FAO: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Forest Europe. Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services, Final Report; Group of Expert (2012–2014) & Belgrade Workshop; 24–25 September 2014 in Serbia; Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe; Forest Europe Liaison Unit: Madrid, Spain, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Rametsteiner, E.; Simula, M. Forest certification—An Instrument to Promote Sustainable Forest Management? J. Environ. Manag. 2003, 67, 87–98. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Payn, T.; (Scion, Rotorua, New Zealand). Personal communication, 2018.
- Forest Europe. State of Europe’s Forests 2015; Forest Europe Liaison Unit: Madrid, Spain, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- UNECE. Forests in the ECE Region: Trends and Challenges in Achieving the Global Objectives on Forests. In ECE/TIM/SP/37; United Nations: Bali, Indonesia, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Rametsteiner, E.; Pülzl, H.; Alkan-Olsson, J.; Frederiksen, P. Sustainability indicator development—Science or political negotiation? Ecol. Ind. 2011, 11, 61–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dahl, A. Achievements and gaps in indicators for sustainability. Ecol. Ind. 2012, 17, 14–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gritten, D.; (RECOFT, Bangkok, Thailand). Personal communication, 2018.
- FAO. FRA 2020. In Guidelines and Specifications; Version 1.0.; FAO: Rome, Italy, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- McGinley, K.A.; Cubbage, F.W. Examining Forest Governance in the United States through the Montréal Process Criteria and Indicators Framework. Int. For. Rev. 2017, 19, 192–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Program on Forests (PROFOR) Kishor Nalin and Kenneth Rosenbaum. In Assessing and Monitoring Forest Governance: A User’s Guide to a Diagnostic Tool; Program on Forests (PROFOR); World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2012; ISBN 978-0-9855195-2-0.
- Montréal Process. Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests, 5th ed.; Montréal Process Liaison Office: Rotorua, New Zealand, 2015; Available online: https://montrealprocess.org/documents/publications/techreports/MontrealProcessSeptember2015.pdf (accessed on 1 June 2018).
- OTCA/OIMT. Criterios e Indicadores de Sostenibilidad del Bosque Amazónico. Policy Development Report for ITTO; unpublished; ITTO: Yokohama, Japan, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Jafari, M. Tehran process and C&I for SFM in LFCCs and near east dry land zones. In Proceedings of the International Seminar on Challenges of Sustainable Forest Management, Integrating Environmental, Social and Economic Values of Forests, Tokyo, Japan, 8–10 March 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Bosela, M.; Larocque, G.; Baycheva, T.; Valbuena, R.; Lier, M. Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management. In Ecological Forest Management Handbook; Larocque, G., Ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2015; pp. 384–413. [Google Scholar]
- Hontelez, J.; (FSC Secretariat, Brussels, Belgium). Personal communication, 2018.
- Prins, K. Monitoring progress towards sustainable forest management, through a set of indicators or an index: Some suggestions. In Proceedings of the 2nd Informal Inter-agency Meeting on Indicators to Monitor Progress towards SFM and Forest-Related SDG Indicators, New York, NY, USA, 29 April 2016; CPF: New York, NY, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Riggs, R.A.; Langston, J.D.; Sayer, J. Incorporating governance into forest transition frameworks to understand and influence Cambodia’s forest landscapes. For. Policy Econ. 2018, 96, 19–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- ESCAP. Asia and the Pacific SDG Progress Report 2017; The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP): Bangkok, Thailand, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Prins, K.; (Carouge, Switzerland). Personal communication, 2018.
- Kelly, J.G.; Simmons, B.A. Politics by Number: Indicators as Social Pressure in International Relations. Am. J. Political Sci. 2015, 59, 55–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- USDA Forest Service. National Report on Sustainable Forests—2010; Robertson, G., Ed.; Chief. FS-979; USDA Forest Service: Washington, DC, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries. Sustainable Management of New Zealand’s Forests: New Zealand’s Third Country Report on the Montréal Process Criteria and Indicators; New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries: Wellington, New Zealand, 2015.
- FAO Website on Global Forest Resources Assessments. Available online: http://www.fao.org/forest-resources-assessment/current-assessment/en/ (accessed on 30 July 2018).
|Discourse of SFM||Science Applications||Monitoring and Reporting on SFM||Sustainable Forest Management Practices||Assessment of Progress towards SFM||Forest-Related Dialogue and Communication|
|Facilitated societal consensus building regarding forest management||Provided a framework to guide research on SFM||Shaped, improved, and streamlined national reporting||Fostered a shift from sustained yield to more holistic SFM practices||Facilitated efforts to review differences in trends between countries||Increased awareness and understanding of SFM|
|Made abstract concepts like socio-economic benefits more concrete||Inspired new areas of research||Contributed to improve the comparability of time series and of information between the various regions||Increased stakeholder participation in SFM processes||Fostered innovative regional assessment methods (e.g., SEMAFOR)||Improved communication within the forest sector|
|Supported new modes of governance in national forest policy-making||Encouraged funding of C&I related research projects||Aligned global forest reporting with national data collection systems||Enabled better access to resource use rights||Contributed to assessment approaches for a variety of forest-related global or regional goals||Facilitated deliberations and consultations between policy makers and stakeholders|
|Increased the political commitment to agree on and support SFM||Supported engagement of scientists in SFM policy discussions and negotiations||Provided information of international relevance to high-level policy processes||Mobilized investment in new forest products and ecosystem services||Raised attention and interest in forest-related information of other sectors|
|Facilitated the common understanding of related concepts, terms and definitions||Provided an organising structure for scientific events, conferences and international congresses||Provided indicators for the reporting of the forest-related SDG targets||Aided control of compliance with forest management requirements||Broadened understanding of forest related information for evidence-based policy-making|
|Provided a pool for the selection of a global core set of forest related indicators||Fostered development of forest certification||Provided modern knowledge tools for global governance|
|Reduced multiple reporting burdens||Improved access to markets for forest products from sustainable sources|
|Enhanced evidence-based decision-making|
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).