- freely available
Forests 2017, 8(8), 296; doi:10.3390/f8080296
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. An ACB Burning System Set-Up and Description
2.2. Description of ACBs Used in the Experiments
2.3. Description of Material Types Used in the Experiments
2.4. Field Data Collection and Analysis
- S-220 burning cycle time: For the S-220 burning test, we started recording the burning time when the air blower was turned on and stopped right after the last materials were loaded. Further, to determine the pure burning cycle time, second loading and waiting times sum up to gross-cycle times and determine to SMH.
- BurnBoss burning cycle time: For the BurnBoss burning test, we started recording the burning time when the air blower was turned on and stopped right after the last materials were loaded, producing comparable burning consumption rates (S-220 vs. BurnBoss). In addition, we continuously recorded until the materials were burned down completely to ash, because we also focused on feasibility to compare the burning consumption rates of BurnBoss with HPB.
- HPB burning cycle time: We started recording the burning time when a second loading started and completed our time measurement when the materials were burned down completely to ash. Thus, to determine the pure burning cycle time of HPB, second loading and perfectly combustion times sum up to gross-cycle times and determine to SMH. Additionally, when there were partially burned larger materials (>10 cm) in the pile, we picked them up and weighed them for evaluating the burning consumption rate of HPB.
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
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|Locations||Air Temperature (°C)||Relative Humidity (%)||Wind Speed (km/h)||Average Material Size in Diameter (cm)|
|Jacksonville, Florida (S-220)|
|Groveland, California (BurnBoss)|
|small size (<10 cm)||24||38||1.8||5|
|large size (10 to 20 cm)||20||60||1.5||20|
|Volcano, California (BurnBoss installed with ember screen)|
|small size (<10 cm)||24||29||0.8||6|
|large size (10 to 20 cm)||20||38||0.5||16|
|large size (10 to 20 cm)||30||36||0.3||16|
|Cost Factors||S-220||Loader||BurnBoss a||Pickup Truck|
|Purchase price(US $)||106,000||135,000||48,900||40,000|
|Fuel consumption (L/h)||9.5||11.4||0.5||2.9|
|Utilization rate (%)||75.0||40.0||75.0||7.5|
|Wage (US $/h)||24.0||24.0||15.0||0.00|
|Hourly cost (US $/SMH)||53.9 b||19.2 b||28.5 b||0.7|
|Locations||Burning Consumption Rate (GmT/SMH) a||Cost of Disposal (US $/GmT)||Moisture Content (%)||Ave. Flame Temperature b (°C)|
|Jacksonville, Florida (S-220)|
|Groveland, California (BurnBoss)|
|small size (<10 cm)||0.7 |
(0.5 vs. HPB d: 0.3) e
|40.9||26||955 (HPB d: 926)|
|large size (10 to 20 cm)||0.6 |
(0.5 vs. HPB d: 0.2) e
|47.5||27||953 (HPB d: 945)|
|Volcano, California (BurnBoss installed with ember screen )|
|small size (<10 cm)||0.7 |
(0.3 vs. HPB d: 0.2) e
|40.9||19||953 (HPB d: 916)|
|large size (10 to 20 cm)||0.6 |
(0.3 vs. HPB d: 0.1) e
|47.7||36||957 (HPB d: 938)|
|large size (10 to 20 cm)||1.7 |
(1.3 vs. HPB d: 0.1) e
|17.9||17||955 (HPB d: 934)|
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