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Article

Natural Dyeing of Cellulose and Protein Fibers with the Flower Extract of Spartium junceum L. Plant

1
Department of Textile Chemistry and Ecology, Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Department of Agricultural Technology, Storage and Transport, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Steve Eichhorn
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4091; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154091
Received: 29 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 19 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collection of Papers in Materials Science from Croatia)
In this study, the natural dye was extracted from Spartium junceum L. (SJL) flowers and applied on cellulose (cotton) and protein (wool) fabric. Fabrics were pre-mordant with alum prior to the dyeing process. Considering the global requirements on zero waste and green policy, the dyeing process was intended to be as much as possible environmentally friendly but still effective. Therefore, mordant concentration was optimized due to the reduction of the negative impact. The efficiency of the dyeing process was investigated by examination of fabrics’ color characteristics and colorfastness to washing properties. In this paper, we have proved that the extracted dye from Spartium junceum L. is an acidic dye (mordant dye) which is more applicable for the treatment of wool fabrics. In this paper, it was proved that phytochemicals responsible for coloring are part of the flavonoids group. The UV absorption spectra of extracted dye show 4 bands in the region of λmax 224, 268, 308 and 346 nm which are ascribed to bands characteristic for flavonoids. Wool fabric pre-mordant with 3% alum and dyed shows great chromatic (C*) properties where C* value is in a range from 47.76 for unwashed samples to 47.50 for samples after 5 washing cycles and color hue (h°) is in a range 82.13 for unwashed samples to 81.52 for samples after 5 washing cycles. The best result regarding the colorfastness properties is shown by the wool sample treated with 3% alum after 5 washing cycles (total difference in color (Delta E*) = 0.87). These results confirm that metal (Al) from alum mordant make strong chemical bonds with wool substrate and dye since Delta E* values decrease in comparison to Delta E* values of the cotton samples treated the same way. The results revealed it is possible to reduce the concentration of mordant up to 3% and obtain satisfactory results regarding the colorfastness. Nevertheless, future research will go in the direction of replacing synthetic mordant with a more environmentally friendly one. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spartium junceum L.; natural dye; mordant dye; cellulose fibers; protein fibers; wool dyeing; flavonoids; colorfastness to washing Spartium junceum L.; natural dye; mordant dye; cellulose fibers; protein fibers; wool dyeing; flavonoids; colorfastness to washing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kovačević, Z.; Sutlović, A.; Matin, A.; Bischof, S. Natural Dyeing of Cellulose and Protein Fibers with the Flower Extract of Spartium junceum L. Plant. Materials 2021, 14, 4091. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154091

AMA Style

Kovačević Z, Sutlović A, Matin A, Bischof S. Natural Dyeing of Cellulose and Protein Fibers with the Flower Extract of Spartium junceum L. Plant. Materials. 2021; 14(15):4091. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154091

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kovačević, Zorana, Ana Sutlović, Ana Matin, and Sandra Bischof. 2021. "Natural Dyeing of Cellulose and Protein Fibers with the Flower Extract of Spartium junceum L. Plant" Materials 14, no. 15: 4091. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154091

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