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Article

Optimizing Manufacturing and Osseointegration of Ti6Al4V Implants through Precision Casting and Calcium and Phosphorus Ion Implantation? In Vivo Results of a Large-Scale Animal Trial

1
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany
2
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division for Biochemistry of Joint and Connective Tissue Diseases, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany
3
Access e.V., 52072 Aachen, Germany
4
Peter Brehm GmbH, 91085 Weisendorf, Germany
5
Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071670
Received: 25 February 2020 / Revised: 25 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 3 April 2020
Background: Uncemented implants are still associated with several major challenges, especially with regard to their manufacturing and their osseointegration. In this study, a novel manufacturing technique—an optimized form of precision casting—and a novel surface modification to promote osseointegration—calcium and phosphorus ion implantation into the implant surface—were tested in vivo. Methods: Cylindrical Ti6Al4V implants were inserted bilaterally into the tibia of 110 rats. We compared two generations of cast Ti6Al4V implants (CAST 1st GEN, n = 22, and CAST 2nd GEN, n = 22) as well as cast 2nd GEN Ti6Al4V implants with calcium (CAST + CA, n = 22) and phosphorus (CAST + P, n = 22) ion implantation to standard machined Ti6Al4V implants (control, n = 22). After 4 and 12 weeks, maximal pull-out force and bone-to-implant contact rate (BIC) were measured and compared between all five groups. Results: There was no significant difference between all five groups after 4 weeks or 12 weeks with regard to pull-out force (p > 0.05, Kruskal Wallis test). Histomorphometric analysis showed no significant difference of BIC after 4 weeks (p > 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis test), whereas there was a trend towards a higher BIC in the CAST + P group (54.8% ± 15.2%), especially compared to the control group (38.6% ± 12.8%) after 12 weeks (p = 0.053, Kruskal–Wallis test). Conclusion: In this study, we found no indication of inferiority of Ti6Al4V implants cast with the optimized centrifugal precision casting technique of the second generation compared to standard Ti6Al4V implants. As the employed manufacturing process holds considerable economic potential, mainly due to a significantly decreased material demand per implant by casting near net-shape instead of milling away most of the starting ingot, its application in manufacturing uncemented implants seems promising. However, no significant advantages of calcium or phosphorus ion implantation could be observed in this study. Due to the promising results of ion implantation in previous in vitro and in vivo studies, further in vivo studies with different ion implantation conditions should be considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: ion implantation; precision casting; Ti6Al4V; calcium; phosphorus; centrifugal casting ion implantation; precision casting; Ti6Al4V; calcium; phosphorus; centrifugal casting
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MDPI and ACS Style

JV, W.-R.; B, K.A.; J, F.; H, M.; G, K.; A, I.; L, D.; H, R.; RE, B. Optimizing Manufacturing and Osseointegration of Ti6Al4V Implants through Precision Casting and Calcium and Phosphorus Ion Implantation? In Vivo Results of a Large-Scale Animal Trial. Materials 2020, 13, 1670. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071670

AMA Style

JV W-R, B KA, J F, H M, G K, A I, L D, H R, RE B. Optimizing Manufacturing and Osseointegration of Ti6Al4V Implants through Precision Casting and Calcium and Phosphorus Ion Implantation? In Vivo Results of a Large-Scale Animal Trial. Materials. 2020; 13(7):1670. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071670

Chicago/Turabian Style

JV, Wölfle-Roos, Katmer Amet B, Fiedler J, Michels H, Kappelt G, Ignatius A, Dürselen L, Reichel H, and Brenner RE. 2020. "Optimizing Manufacturing and Osseointegration of Ti6Al4V Implants through Precision Casting and Calcium and Phosphorus Ion Implantation? In Vivo Results of a Large-Scale Animal Trial" Materials 13, no. 7: 1670. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071670

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