This review of literature paper was done in order to conduct a review of the literature and an assessment of the effects of titanium implant corrosion on peri-implant health and success in the oral environment. This paper evaluates and critically reviews the findings of the multiple in-depth in vivo and in vitro studies that are related to corrosion aspects of the titanium and its alloys. A literature survey was conducted by electronic search in Medline and studies that were published between 1940 and August 2018 were selected. The search terms used were types of corrosion, corrosion of titanium implants, titanium corrosion, metal ion release from the titanium implants, fretting and pitting corrosion, implant corrosion, peri implantitis, and corrosion. Both in vivo and in vitro studies were also included in the review. The search and selection resulted in 64 articles. These articles were divided on the basis of their context to different kinds of corrosion related to titanium dental implants. It is evident that metal ions are released from titanium and titanium alloy dental implants as a result of corrosion. Corrosion of implants is multifactorial, including electrical, chemical, and mechanical factors, which have an effect on the peri-implant tissues and microbiota. The literature surveyed showed that corrosion related to titanium and its alloys has an effect on the health of peri-implant soft and hard tissue and the long term survival of metal dental implants. It can be concluded that presence of the long-term corrosion reaction along with continuous corrosion leads to the release of ions into the peri-implant tissue but also to a disintegration of the implant that contribute to material fatigue and even fracture of the abutments and implant body or both. This combined impact of the corrosion, bacterial activity, chemical reactions, and functional stresses are to be looked at as important factors of implant failure. The findings can be used to explore the possible strategies of research to investigate the biological impact of implant materials.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited