- freely available
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122031
2. Materials and Experimental Methods
2.1. Material Characterization and Mix Properties
2.2. Test for Slump of the LWGP Concrete (KS F 2402)
2.3. Test for the Compressive Strength of Concrete (KS F 2405)
2.4. Test for the Porosity and Pore Size Distribution
2.5. Test for the Sulfate Attack Resistance of Concrete
2.6. Manufacturing LWGP Concrete Flumes
2.7. Flexural Loads of the LWGP Concrete Flumes
3. Results and Discussion
3.2. Changes in Weight and Volume
3.3. Compressive Strength and Strength Change
3.4. Pore Distribution of the Concrete Blended with the LWGP Powder
3.5. Flexural Capacity
- The LWGP yielded large compressive strengths of 23.66 to 28.92 MPa at 28 days. LWGP5 especially resulted in a strength increase greater than those of OPC. By contrast, the strengths of the LWGP12 demonstrated a compressive strength smaller than those of OPC, regardless of the substituted ratios of the LWGP.
- A pore decrease of 25.4% compared with OPC was observed at 28 days when the LWGP5-20 powder was used with concrete. The capillary pores (below 10 μm) related with the ion penetrations were found in the order of OPC (17.79%), LWGP12-10 (16.32%), LWGP12-20 (16.24%), LWGP5-10 (13.79%), and LWGP5-20 (13.27%). The capillary pores occupied by Ca(OH)2 decreased, whereas the gel pores increased by forming the C–S–H gel. This led to pore reduction and a higher strength development.
- The reduction ratios of the weight and the volume for concretes with the mixture of LWGP powders were smaller than with OPC. The reduction ratios of the weight and the volume of the LWGP5-10 concrete were the lowest as 4.41% and 2.70% when they were immersed in the Na2SO4 solution for 182 days, whereas those were 6.04% and 4.32% when immersed in the MgSO4 solution. This trend was found to be similar to that of the compressive concrete strength immersed in the sulfate solution.
- The maximum flexural load of the LWGP concrete flume was the highest at 69.92 kN in the LWGP5-10 contained concrete, while the LWGP10 contained concrete flumes smaller than the OPC concrete flumes. The flexural load of the concrete was generally increased or decreased in proportion to the compressive strength; hence, the tendency similarity was confirmed. Moreover, the opposite case was that the decrease of the flexural load of the concrete flume with LWGP10 also had the same tendency.
- The flexural loads of all the LWGP concrete flumes with a crack width of 0.05 mm were greater than the 48.5 kN required by the KS code, but smaller than the flexural loads of OPC. The initial cracks were effectively controlled for LWGP5-10 and LWGP12-10 before the critical load.
- The durability of the conventional reinforced concrete flumes against the sulfate attack resistance was improved by substituting cement by LWGP, thereby extending the use of the new reinforced concrete flumes to the replacement of conventional reinforced concrete flumes. The applicability was also validated by the flexural test complying with KS.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Oxide Composition||Specific Gravity|
|Fineness Modulus||Water Absorption* (%)||Specific Gravity (N/m3)|
|Unit Weight (kg/m3)|
|Fine Aggregate||Coarse Aggregate|
|Void||> 10 μm||2.88||1.76||2.17||3.69||3.41|
|Flexural Loads of the Reinforced Concrete Flumes|
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