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Article

Tobacco Use among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women and Men in Zambia—Demographic and Health Survey, 2018

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Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
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Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA
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Center for Primary Care Research, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
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Centre for Primary Care Research, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carol Cunradi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 3859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073859
Received: 11 February 2022 / Revised: 16 March 2022 / Accepted: 18 March 2022 / Published: 24 March 2022
Country-specific estimates of tobacco use among people living with HIV (PLWH) are lacking for much of sub-Saharan Africa. We aim to evaluate the association between the HIV status and tobacco product use status, frequency, and intensity, using nationally representative data from Zambia. We analyzed data from the 2018 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Zambia among women aged 15–49 years and men aged 15–59 years. We performed logistic regression to assess the associations of HIV status, selected sociodemographic, and other characteristics with indicators of tobacco use (i.e., status, frequency, and intensity). Among women, 14.3% tested positive for HIV and 2.7% reported current smoking or tobacco use; women living with HIV were more likely to report currently smoking or using tobacco than women living without HIV (4.4% vs. 2.4%; aPR: 1.46). Among men, 8.4% tested positive for HIV and 19.5% reported current smoking; men living with HIV were more likely than men living without HIV to report current smoking (27.8% vs. 18.7%; aPR: 1.22). Several sociodemographic characteristics were associated with tobacco use, including age, residence (urban/rural), education level, employment status, and wealth index. The frequency and intensity of smoking among men who currently smoked did not differ by HIV status. Tobacco use was more likely in PLWH than those without HIV in Zambia. Our findings highlight the need to encourage and support tobacco cessation among PLWH, possibly by offering cessation services at existing intersections with health care or integrating cessation support into mHealth and other alternative models of care. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; tobacco use; tobacco smoking; Zambia HIV; tobacco use; tobacco smoking; Zambia
MDPI and ACS Style

Kress, A.C.; Stadnik, C.; Phiri, M.M.; Goma, F.M.; Twentyman, E. Tobacco Use among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women and Men in Zambia—Demographic and Health Survey, 2018. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 3859. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073859

AMA Style

Kress AC, Stadnik C, Phiri MM, Goma FM, Twentyman E. Tobacco Use among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women and Men in Zambia—Demographic and Health Survey, 2018. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(7):3859. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073859

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kress, Alissa C., Carlen Stadnik, Masauso M. Phiri, Fastone M. Goma, and Evelyn Twentyman. 2022. "Tobacco Use among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women and Men in Zambia—Demographic and Health Survey, 2018" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 7: 3859. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073859

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