Parental Adverse Childhood Experiences and Perpetration of Child Physical Punishment in Wales
2. Materials and Methods
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Sample||n (%)||Physically Punished a Child|
|Ever||In the Last Year|
|%||p||AOR (95%CIs)||p||%||p||AOR (95%CIs)||p|
|Female||480 (66.7)||27.1||0.349||1.14 (0.78–1.65)||0.500||6.3||0.500||1.25 (0.59–2.61)||0.559|
|30–39||231 (32.1)||19.5||1.27 (0.62–2.60)||0.521||8.7||1.48 (0.52–4.26)||0.465|
|40–49||271 (37.6)||31.4||2.70 (1.34–5.45)||0.006||3.7||0.77 (0.24–2.45)||0.658|
|50+||149 (20.7)||40.9||<0.001||4.15 (1.97–8.75)||<0.001||4.7||0.101||1.14 (0.32–4.05)||0.836|
|(Most) 1||141 (19.6)||22.0||Ref||0.139||6.4||Ref||0.921|
|2||135 (18.8)||33.3||1.67 (0.95–2.91)||0.073||7.4||1.43 (0.54–3.81)||0.469|
|3||146 (20.3)||21.9||0.99 (0.56–1.78)||0.986||6.2||1.33 (0.49–3.62)||0.577|
|4||151 (21.0)||34.4||1.70 (0.97–2.97)||0.063||5.3||1.49 (0.52–4.26)||0.456|
|(Least) 5||147 (20.4)||29.3||0.036||1.31 (0.75–2.32)||0.345||4.1||0.806||1.06 (0.35–3.24)||0.918|
|BAME *||No||687 (95.4)||27.9||Ref||5.8||Ref|
|Yes||33 (4.6)||33.3||0.502||1.34 (0.60–2.96)||0.483||6.1||0.955||0.93 (0.20–4.22)||0.923|
|ACE count||0||291 (40.4)||21.6||Ref||<0.001||1.7||Ref||<0.001|
|1||155 (21.5)||29.0||1.62 (1.02–2.56)||0.041||4.5||2.50 (0.78–8.08)||0.125|
|2–3||160 (22.2)||33.8||2.29 (1.45–3.61)||<0.001||6.3||3.70 (1.22–11.17)||0.020|
|4+||114 (15.8)||36.0||0.007||2.89 (1.72–4.80)||<0.001||17.5||<0.001||11.74 (4.16–33.18)||<0.001|
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Hughes, K.; Ford, K.; Bellis, M.A.; Amos, R. Parental Adverse Childhood Experiences and Perpetration of Child Physical Punishment in Wales. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 12702. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912702
Hughes K, Ford K, Bellis MA, Amos R. Parental Adverse Childhood Experiences and Perpetration of Child Physical Punishment in Wales. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(19):12702. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912702Chicago/Turabian Style
Hughes, Karen, Kat Ford, Mark A. Bellis, and Rebekah Amos. 2022. "Parental Adverse Childhood Experiences and Perpetration of Child Physical Punishment in Wales" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 19: 12702. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912702