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Article

The Fire and Explosion Hazard of Coloured Powders Used during the Holi Festival

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Main School of Fire Service, Faculty of Security Engineering and Civil Protection, 52/54 Słowackiego Street, 01-629 Warsaw, Poland
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Main School of Fire Service, International Security Institute, 52/54 Słowackiego Street, 01-629 Warsaw, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111090
Received: 5 September 2021 / Revised: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 17 October 2021 / Published: 21 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
During the world-famous Holi festival, people throw and smear each other with a colored powder (Holi color, Holi powder, Gulal powder). Until now, adverse health and environmental effects (skin and eye irritation, air pollution, and respiratory problems) have been described in the available literature. However, the literature lacks data on the flammable and explosive properties of these powders during mass events, despite the fact that burns, fires, and explosions during the Holi festival have taken place many times. The aim of the article is to present the fire and explosion parameters of three currently used Holi dust and cornflour dust types as reference dust. The minimum ignition temperature of the dust layer and dust cloud, the maximum explosion pressure and its maximum rate of growth over time, the lower explosion limit, the limit of oxygen concentration, and the minimum ignition energy were determined. Tests confirmed that the currently available Holi powders should be classified as flammable dusts and low-explosive dusts. The likelihood of a fire or explosion during mass incidents involving a Holi dust-air mixture is high. View Full-Text
Keywords: fire safety; air pollution; Holi dust fire safety; air pollution; Holi dust
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kukfisz, B.; Piec, R. The Fire and Explosion Hazard of Coloured Powders Used during the Holi Festival. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11090. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111090

AMA Style

Kukfisz B, Piec R. The Fire and Explosion Hazard of Coloured Powders Used during the Holi Festival. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11090. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111090

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kukfisz, Bożena, and Robert Piec. 2021. "The Fire and Explosion Hazard of Coloured Powders Used during the Holi Festival" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11090. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111090

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