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Open AccessReview

Modes of Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Factors Influencing on the Airborne Transmission: A Review

1
Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
3
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020395
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Environmental Science and Engineering)
The multiple modes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission including airborne, droplet, contact, and fecal–oral transmissions that cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) contribute to a public threat to the lives of people worldwide. Herein, different databases are reviewed to evaluate modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and study the effects of negative pressure ventilation, air conditioning system, and related protection approaches of this virus. Droplet transmission was commonly reported to occur in particles with diameter >5 µm that can quickly settle gravitationally on surfaces (1–2 m). Instead, fine and ultrafine particles (airborne transmission) can stay suspended for an extended period of time (≥2 h) and be transported further, e.g., up to 8 m through simple diffusion and convection mechanisms. Droplet and airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can be limited indoors with adequate ventilation of rooms, by routine disinfection of toilets, using negative pressure rooms, using face masks, and maintaining social distancing. Other preventive measures recommended include increasing the number of screening tests of suspected carriers of SARS-CoV-2, reducing the number of persons in a room to minimize sharing indoor air, and monitoring people’s temperature before accessing a building. The work reviews a body of literature supporting the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through air, causing COVID-19 disease, which requires coordinated worldwide strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; infection; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic coronavirus; COVID-19; infection; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Delikhoon, M.; Guzman, M.I.; Nabizadeh, R.; Norouzian Baghani, A. Modes of Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Factors Influencing on the Airborne Transmission: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 395. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020395

AMA Style

Delikhoon M, Guzman MI, Nabizadeh R, Norouzian Baghani A. Modes of Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Factors Influencing on the Airborne Transmission: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):395. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020395

Chicago/Turabian Style

Delikhoon, Mahdieh; Guzman, Marcelo I.; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Norouzian Baghani, Abbas. 2021. "Modes of Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Factors Influencing on the Airborne Transmission: A Review" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 2: 395. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020395

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