Next Article in Journal
Association between Urban Upbringing and Compulsive Internet Use in Japan: A Cross-Sectional, Multilevel Study with Retrospective Recall
Previous Article in Journal
A One-Year Prospective Study of Work-Related Mental Health in the Intensivists of a COVID-19 Hub Hospital
Article

Loneliness among Middle-Aged and Older Middle-Aged Adults in Russia (Saint Petersburg) before and during COVID-19 Pandemic

Faculty of Psychology, Saint Petersburg State University, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189889
Received: 20 August 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 18 September 2021 / Published: 20 September 2021
Loneliness has been considered a major challenge since long before the pandemic. Changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic included modifications in social communications and activities. Thus, it was expected that loneliness would increase during the pandemic. The first studies of loneliness during the pandemic revealed inconsistent results. We hypothesized that physical isolation led to changes in the quality of relationships; thus, loneliness trends could be different from those predicted. For our study we used methods to measure loneliness: the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale (SELSA-S) for Adults and Older Adults; the Multidimensional Inventory of Loneliness Experience; and demographic data. Participants were middle-aged and older middle-aged adults (n = 457) aged 35–59 (M = 45.5, SD = 6.88, 35.4% males). Participants came from two studies: Study 1 consisted of 280 participants aged 35–59 (M = 44.8; SD = 6.93; 29.6% males), the study was conducted before the pandemic in late 2019; participants in Study 2 were adults (n = 177) aged 35–59 (M = 46.5; SD = 6.68; 44.6% males), data were collected in the fall of 2020. The results did not confirm increase in loneliness; moreover, participants reported lower scores of loneliness in some domains. Regression analyses showed that general experience of loneliness was predicted by different loneliness characteristics in pre-pandemic and pandemic age groups. We found some similar mechanisms that were activated within different situations. Our results confirmed the complex nature of loneliness, they argue that pandemic effects were not limited to increase in loneliness and that the mechanism of loneliness can adjust to environmental factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: loneliness; solitude; adulthood; COVID-19; positive loneliness; emotional loneliness; isolation loneliness; solitude; adulthood; COVID-19; positive loneliness; emotional loneliness; isolation
MDPI and ACS Style

Strizhitskaya, O.; Petrash, M.; Murtazina, I.; Vartanyan, G.; Shchukin, A. Loneliness among Middle-Aged and Older Middle-Aged Adults in Russia (Saint Petersburg) before and during COVID-19 Pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9889. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189889

AMA Style

Strizhitskaya O, Petrash M, Murtazina I, Vartanyan G, Shchukin A. Loneliness among Middle-Aged and Older Middle-Aged Adults in Russia (Saint Petersburg) before and during COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9889. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189889

Chicago/Turabian Style

Strizhitskaya, Olga, Marina Petrash, Inna Murtazina, Gayane Vartanyan, and Anton Shchukin. 2021. "Loneliness among Middle-Aged and Older Middle-Aged Adults in Russia (Saint Petersburg) before and during COVID-19 Pandemic" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9889. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189889

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop