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Environmental and Endogenous Acids Can Trigger Allergic-Type Airway Reactions

1
Studio Tecnico Ing. Laura Molinari, Environmental Health and Safety Via Quarto Ponte 17, 37138 Verona, Italy
2
Elsa Nervo, Società Chimica Italiana, 00198 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134688
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Risk Factors, Allergic Diseases and Lung Health)
Inflammatory allergic and nonallergic respiratory disorders are spreading worldwide and often coexist. The root cause is not clear. This review demonstrates that, from a biochemical point of view, it is ascribable to protons (H+) released into cells by exogenous and endogenous acids. The hypothesis of acids as the common cause stems from two considerations: (a) it has long been known that exogenous acids present in air pollutants can induce the irritation of epithelial surfaces, particularly the airways, inflammation, and bronchospasm; (b) according to recent articles, endogenous acids, generated in cells by phospholipases, play a key role in the biochemical mechanisms of initiation and progression of allergic-type reactions. Therefore, the intracellular acidification and consequent Ca2+ increase, induced by protons generated by either acid pollutants or endogenous phospholipases, may constitute the basic mechanism of the multimorbidity of these disorders, and environmental acidity may contribute to their spread. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric acidity; air pollution; allergic reactions; mechanisms of allergy; allergic rhinitis; asthma; chronic; allergic multimorbidity; nonallergic; pseudo-allergic atmospheric acidity; air pollution; allergic reactions; mechanisms of allergy; allergic rhinitis; asthma; chronic; allergic multimorbidity; nonallergic; pseudo-allergic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Molinari, G.; Molinari, L.; Nervo, E. Environmental and Endogenous Acids Can Trigger Allergic-Type Airway Reactions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4688.

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