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Open AccessArticle

Cat and Dog Ownership in Early Life and Infant Development: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study of Japan Environment and Children’s Study

1
Hokkaido University Center for Environmental and Health Sciences, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan
2
Hokkaido University Faculty of Health Sciences, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan
3
Department of Social Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa 078-8510, Japan
4
Faculty of Nursing, Japanese Red Cross Hokkaido College of Nursing, Kitami 090-0011, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
A complete list of the centres and investigators in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group is provided in Appendix A.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010205
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 25 December 2019 / Published: 27 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies in Epidemiology)
Contact with companion animals has been suggested to have important roles in enhancing child development. However, studies focused on child development and pet ownership at a very early age are limited. The purpose of the current study was to investigate child development in relation to pet ownership at an early age in a nationwide prospective birth cohort study: the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. Associations between cat and dog ownership at six months and infant development at 12 months of age were examined in this study. Infant development was assessed using the Ages & Stages QuestionnairesTM (ASQ-3) at 12 months. Among participants of (Japan Environment and Children’s Study) JECS, those with available data of cat and dog ownership at six months and data for the ASQ-3 at 12 months were included (n = 78,868). Having dogs showed higher percentages of pass in all five domains measured by ASQ-3 (communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem-solving, and personal-social) compared to those who did not have dogs. Significantly decreased odds ratios (ORs) of developmental delays were observed in association with having dogs in all fix domains (communication: OR = 0.73, gross motor: OR = 0.86, fine motor: OR = 0.84, problem-solving: OR = 0.90, personal-social: OR = 0.83). This study suggested that early life dog ownership may reduce the risks of child developmental delays. View Full-Text
Keywords: pet ownership; child development; birth cohort; ASQ-3 pet ownership; child development; birth cohort; ASQ-3
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MDPI and ACS Style

Minatoya, M.; Araki, A.; Miyashita, C.; Itoh, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.; Ait Bamai, Y.; Saijyo, Y.; Ito, Y.; Kishi, R.; The Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group. Cat and Dog Ownership in Early Life and Infant Development: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study of Japan Environment and Children’s Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010205

AMA Style

Minatoya M, Araki A, Miyashita C, Itoh S, Kobayashi S, Yamazaki K, Ait Bamai Y, Saijyo Y, Ito Y, Kishi R, The Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group. Cat and Dog Ownership in Early Life and Infant Development: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study of Japan Environment and Children’s Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(1):205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010205

Chicago/Turabian Style

Minatoya, Machiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Yamazaki, Keiko; Ait Bamai, Yu; Saijyo, Yasuaki; Ito, Yoshiya; Kishi, Reiko; The Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group. 2020. "Cat and Dog Ownership in Early Life and Infant Development: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study of Japan Environment and Children’s Study" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 1: 205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010205

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