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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease in an Elderly Population from Eastern China

1
School of Public Health, Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266021, Shandong Province, China
2
Health Center of Liuting Street, Chengyang District, Qingdao 266108, Shandong Province, China
3
Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
4
Sergievsky Center, Taub Institute, and Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224383 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 October 2019 / Revised: 3 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Kidney Disease)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global major public health problem. Almost all of previous studies evaluating the prevalence of CKD focused on adults, while studies among the elderly were relatively rare, especially in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among the elderly in Qingdao, China. This was a cross-sectional study with 38,038 inhabitants (aged 60–109) randomly recruited in Qingdao, China. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire for their demographic characteristics. Blood and urine samples of participants were collected, and the albumin and creatinine levels were measured for albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) assessment. The associations between risk factors and indicators of kidney damage were analyzed by logistic regression. A total of 34,588 inhabitants completed the survey. The overall prevalence of CKD was 11.41% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.07–11.74%) in the elders from Qingdao in 2016. The prevalence of albuminuria and low eGFR (<60 mL/min per 1·73 m²) were 8.47% (95% CI: 8.17–8.76%) and 3.98% (95% CI: 3.78–4.19%), respectively. Older age, hypertension, diabetes, anemia, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and LDL-C ≥ 4.1 mmol/L were independently associated with the presence of CKD. In conclusion, common chronic non-communicable diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperhomocysteinemia, hyperuricemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, were associated with greater prevalence of CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; elderly; prevalence; epidemiology chronic kidney disease; elderly; prevalence; epidemiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ji, A.; Pan, C.; Wang, H.; Jin, Z.; Lee, J.H.; Wu, Q.; Jiang, Q.; Cui, L. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease in an Elderly Population from Eastern China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4383.

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