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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070747

Disinfection of the Water Borne Pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by Solar Photocatalysis Using Sonochemically Synthesized Reusable Ag@ZnO Core-Shell Nanoparticles

1
School of Biotechnology, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT University), Bhubaneswar 751024, India
2
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
3
School of Chemical Technology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751024, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Abstract

Water borne pathogens present a threat to human health and their disinfection from water poses a challenge, prompting the search for newer methods and newer materials. Disinfection of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive coccal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in an aqueous matrix was achieved within 60 and 90 min, respectively, at 35 °C using solar-photocatalysis mediated by sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The efficiency of the process increased with the increase in temperature and at 55 °C the disinfection for the two bacteria could be achieved in 45 and 60 min, respectively. A new ultrasound-assisted chemical precipitation technique was used for the synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The characteristics of the synthesized material were established using physical techniques. The material remained stable even at 400 °C. Disinfection efficiency of the Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles was confirmed in the case of real world samples of pond, river, municipal tap water and was found to be better than that of pure ZnO and TiO2 (Degussa P25). When the nanoparticle- based catalyst was recycled and reused for subsequent disinfection experiments, its efficiency did not change remarkably, even after three cycles. The sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles thus have a good potential for application in solar photocatalytic disinfection of water borne pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: core-shell; disinfection; Escherichia coli; nanoparticles; pathogens; silver; solar-photocatalysis; Staphylococcus aureus; water; zinc oxide core-shell; disinfection; Escherichia coli; nanoparticles; pathogens; silver; solar-photocatalysis; Staphylococcus aureus; water; zinc oxide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Das, S.; Ranjana, N.; Misra, A.J.; Suar, M.; Mishra, A.; Tamhankar, A.J.; Lundborg, C.S.; Tripathy, S.K. Disinfection of the Water Borne Pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by Solar Photocatalysis Using Sonochemically Synthesized Reusable Ag@ZnO Core-Shell Nanoparticles. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 747.

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