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Open AccessArticle

Fucoxanthinol from the Diatom Nitzschia Laevis Ameliorates Neuroinflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV-2 Microglia

1
Institute for Food and Bioresource Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
2
Institute for Advanced Study, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020116
Received: 6 January 2020 / Revised: 9 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 17 February 2020
In recent years, microalgae have drawn increasing attention as a valuable source of functional food ingredients. Intriguingly, Nitzschia laevis is rich in fucoxanthinol that is seldom found in natural sources. Fucoxanthinol, a marine xanthophyll carotenoid, possesses various beneficial bioactivities. Nevertheless, it’s not clear whether fucoxanthinol could exert anti-neuroinflammatory function. In light of these premises, the aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory role of fucoxanthinol purified from Nitzschia laevis in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia. The results showed that pre-treatment of fucoxanthinol remarkably attenuated the expression of LPS-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction. Modulation mechanism studies revealed that fucoxanthinol hampered nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Meanwhile, fucoxanthinol led to the enhancement of nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1). Taken together, the results indicated that fucoxanthinol obtained from Nitzschia laevis had great potential as a neuroprotective agent in neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nitzschia laevis; fucoxanthinol; anti-inflammation; MAPKs; Akt; NF-κB; Nrf2 Nitzschia laevis; fucoxanthinol; anti-inflammation; MAPKs; Akt; NF-κB; Nrf2
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Li, Y.; Liu, L.; Sun, P.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, T.; Sun, H.; Cheng, K.-W.; Chen, F. Fucoxanthinol from the Diatom Nitzschia Laevis Ameliorates Neuroinflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV-2 Microglia. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 116.

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