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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020132

Eicosapentaenoic Acid Extraction from Nannochloropsis gaditana Using Carbon Dioxide at Supercritical Conditions

1
ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Sustainability-CR Portici, P. Enrico Fermi, 1, 80055 Portici, Italy
2
ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Sustainability-CR Trisaia, SS Jonica 106, km 419+500, 7026 Rotondella, Italy
3
Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council (ITM-CNR) Via Pietro Bucci, Cubo 17C, 870 36 Rende, Italy
4
Department of Engineering, University of Campania “L.Vanvitelli”, Real Casa dell’Annunziata, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds Derived from Marine Microalgae)
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Abstract

This research shows that carbon dioxide supercritical fluid (CO2-SF) is an emerging technology for the extraction of high interest compounds for applications in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics from microalgae. The purpose of this study is to recover fatty acids (FAs) and, more precisely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass by CO2-SF extraction. In the paper, the effect of mechanical pre-treatment was evaluated with the aim of increasing FAs recovery. Extraction was performed at a pressure range of 250–550 bars and a CO2 flow rate of 7.24 and 14.48 g/min, while temperature was fixed at 50 or 65 °C. The effect of these parameters on the extraction yield was assessed at each extraction cycle, 20 min each, for a total extraction time of 100 min. Furthermore, the effect of biomass loading on EPA recovery was evaluated. The highest EPA extraction yield, i.e., 11.50 mg/g, corresponding to 27.4% EPA recovery, was obtained at 65 °C and 250 bars with a CO2 flow rate of 7.24 g/min and 1.0 g biomass loading. The increased CO2 flow rate from 7.24 to 14.48 g/min enhanced the cumulative EPA recovery at 250 bars. The purity of EPA could be improved by biomass loading of 2.01 g, even if recovery was reduced. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgae; Nannochloropsis gaditana; lipids; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); Supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction; pharmaceutical; nutraceutical microalgae; Nannochloropsis gaditana; lipids; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); Supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction; pharmaceutical; nutraceutical
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Molino, A.; Martino, M.; Larocca, V.; Di Sanzo, G.; Spagnoletta, A.; Marino, T.; Karatza, D.; Iovine, A.; Mehariya, S.; Musmarra, D. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Extraction from Nannochloropsis gaditana Using Carbon Dioxide at Supercritical Conditions. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 132.

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