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Fucoidan-Rich Substances from Ecklonia cava Improve Trimethyltin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction via Down-Regulation of Amyloid β Production/Tau Hyperphosphorylation

1
Division of Applied Life Science, Institute of Agriculture and Life Science (BK21 plus), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
2
Food Technology Major, Graduate School of International Agricultural Technology, Institute of Green Bio Science and Technology, Pyeongchang 25354, Korea
3
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
4
Departments of Food and Nutrition, Duksung Women’s University, Seoul 01369, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17100591
Received: 21 August 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 17 October 2019
Ecklonia cava (E. cava) was investigated to compare the effect of polyphenol and fucoidan extract and mixture (polyphenol:fucoidan = 4:6) on cognitive function. The ameliorating effect of E. cava was evaluated using the Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests with a trimethyltin (TMT)-induced cognitive dysfunction model, and the results showed that the fucoidan extract and mixture (4:6) had relatively higher learning and memory function effects than the polyphenol extract. After a behavioral test, the inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation and cholinergic system activity were examined in mouse brain tissue, and the fucoidan extract and mixture (4:6) also showed greater improvements than the polyphenol extract. Mitochondrial activity was evaluated using mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and mitochondria-mediated protein (BAX, cytochrome C) analysis, and these results were similar to the results of the behavioral tests. Finally, to confirm the cognitive function-related mechanism of E. cava, the amyloid-β production and tau hyperphosphorylation-medicated proteins were analyzed. Based on these results, the improvement effect of E. cava was more influenced by fucoidan than polyphenol. Therefore, our study suggests that the fucoidan-rich substances in E. cava could be a potential material for improving cognitive function by down-regulating amyloid-β production and tau hyperphosphorylation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ecklonia cava; trimethyltin; cognitive function; amyloid beta; tau Ecklonia cava; trimethyltin; cognitive function; amyloid beta; tau
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Park, S.K.; Kang, J.Y.; Kim, J.M.; Yoo, S.K.; Han, H.J.; Chung, D.H.; Kim, D.-O.; Kim, G.-H.; Heo, H.J. Fucoidan-Rich Substances from Ecklonia cava Improve Trimethyltin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction via Down-Regulation of Amyloid β Production/Tau Hyperphosphorylation. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 591.

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