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Article

Development and Evaluation of a Low-Drift Inertial Sensor-Based System for Analysis of Alpine Skiing Performance

1
ECSens, iMUDS, Department of Electronics and Computer Technology, ETSIIT, University of Granada, 18014 Granada, Spain
2
SkiingLab, iMUDS, Department of Physical and Sport Education, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), University of Granada, 18007 Granada, Spain
3
Human Lab, iMUDS-Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, 18007 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Silvia Fantozzi
Sensors 2021, 21(7), 2480; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072480
Received: 18 January 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 30 March 2021 / Published: 2 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Sensors for Gait, Human Movement Analysis, and Health Monitoring)
In skiing it is important to know how the skier accelerates and inclines the skis during the turn to avoid injuries and improve technique. The purpose of this pilot study with three participants was to develop and evaluate a compact, wireless, and low-cost system for detecting the inclination and acceleration of skis in the field based on inertial measurement units (IMU). To that end, a commercial IMU board was placed on each ski behind the skier boot. With the use of an attitude and heading reference system algorithm included in the sensor board, the orientation and attitude data of the skis were obtained (roll, pitch, and yaw) by IMU sensor data fusion. Results demonstrate that the proposed IMU-based system can provide reliable low-drifted data up to 11 min of continuous usage in the worst case. Inertial angle data from the IMU-based system were compared with the data collected by a video-based 3D-kinematic reference system to evaluate its operation in terms of data correlation and system performance. Correlation coefficients between 0.889 (roll) and 0.991 (yaw) were obtained. Mean biases from −1.13° (roll) to 0.44° (yaw) and 95% limits of agreements from 2.87° (yaw) to 6.27° (roll) were calculated for the 1-min trials. Although low mean biases were achieved, some limitations arose in the system precision for pitch and roll estimations that could be due to the low sampling rate allowed by the sensor data fusion algorithm and the initial zeroing of the gyroscope. View Full-Text
Keywords: inertial sensor; accelerometer; kinematics; alpine skiing; kinetics; photogrammetry 3D inertial sensor; accelerometer; kinematics; alpine skiing; kinetics; photogrammetry 3D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz-García, I.; Navarro-Marchal, I.; Ocaña-Wilhelmi, J.; Palma, A.J.; Gómez-López, P.J.; Carvajal, M.A. Development and Evaluation of a Low-Drift Inertial Sensor-Based System for Analysis of Alpine Skiing Performance. Sensors 2021, 21, 2480. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072480

AMA Style

Ruiz-García I, Navarro-Marchal I, Ocaña-Wilhelmi J, Palma AJ, Gómez-López PJ, Carvajal MA. Development and Evaluation of a Low-Drift Inertial Sensor-Based System for Analysis of Alpine Skiing Performance. Sensors. 2021; 21(7):2480. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072480

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruiz-García, Isidoro, Ismael Navarro-Marchal, Javier Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Alberto J. Palma, Pablo J. Gómez-López, and Miguel A. Carvajal 2021. "Development and Evaluation of a Low-Drift Inertial Sensor-Based System for Analysis of Alpine Skiing Performance" Sensors 21, no. 7: 2480. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072480

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