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Article

Efficient Implementation of NIST LWC ESTATE Algorithm Using OpenCL and Web Assembly for Secure Communication in Edge Computing Environment

Department of Financial Information Security, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Taehong Kim
Sensors 2021, 21(6), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21061987
Received: 31 January 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edge/Fog Computing Technologies for IoT Infrastructure)
In edge computing service, edge devices collect data from a number of embedded devices, like sensors, CCTVs (Closed-circuit Television), and so on, and communicate with application servers. Since a large portion of communication in edge computing services are conducted in wireless, the transmitted data needs to be properly encrypted. Furthermore, the application servers (resp. edge devices) are responsible for encrypting or decrypting a large amount of data from edge devices (resp. terminal devices), the cryptographic operation needs to be optimized on both server side and edge device side. Actually, the confidentiality and integrity of data are essential for secure communication. In this paper, we present two versions of security software which can be used on edge device side and server side for secure communication between them in edge computing environment. Our softwares are basically web-based application because of its universality where the softwares can be executed on any web browsers. Our softwares make use of ESTATE (Energy efficient and Single-state Tweakable block cipher based MAC-Then-Encrypt)algorithm, which is a promising candidate of NIST LWC (National Institute of Standards and Technology LightWeight Cryptography) competition and it provides not only data confidentiality but also data authentication. It also implements the ESTATE algorithm using Web Assembly for efficient use on edge devices, and optimizes the performance of the algorithm using the properties of the underlying block cipher. Several methods are applied to efficiently operate the ESTATE algorithm. We use conditional statements to XOR the extended tweak values during the operation of the ESTATE algorithm. To eliminate this unnecessary process, we use a method of expanding and storing the tweak value through pre-computation. The measured results of the ESTATE algorithm implemented with Web Assembly and the reference C/C++ ESTATE algorithm are compared. ESTATE implemented as Web Assembly is measured in web browsers Chrome, FireFox, and Microsoft Edge. For efficiency on server side, we make use of OpenCL which is parallel computing framework in order to process a number of data simultaneously. In addition, when implementing with OpenCL, using conditional statements causes performance degradation. We eliminated the conditional statement using the loop unrolling method to eliminate the performance degradation. In addition, OpenCL operates by moving the data to be encrypted to the local memory because the local memory has a high operation speed. TweAES-128 and TweAES-128-6, which have the same structure as AES algorithm, can apply the previously existing studied T-table method. In addition, the input value 16-byte is processed in parallel and calculated. In addition, since it may be vulnerable to cache-timing attack, it is safely operated by applying the previously existing studied T-table shuffling method. Our softwares cover the necessary security service from edge devices to servers in edge computing services and they can be easily used for various types of edge computing devices because they are all web-based applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: web; Web Assembly; OpenCL; LWC; fast implementation web; Web Assembly; OpenCL; LWC; fast implementation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, B.; Seo, S.C. Efficient Implementation of NIST LWC ESTATE Algorithm Using OpenCL and Web Assembly for Secure Communication in Edge Computing Environment. Sensors 2021, 21, 1987. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21061987

AMA Style

Park B, Seo SC. Efficient Implementation of NIST LWC ESTATE Algorithm Using OpenCL and Web Assembly for Secure Communication in Edge Computing Environment. Sensors. 2021; 21(6):1987. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21061987

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, BoSun, and Seog C. Seo 2021. "Efficient Implementation of NIST LWC ESTATE Algorithm Using OpenCL and Web Assembly for Secure Communication in Edge Computing Environment" Sensors 21, no. 6: 1987. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21061987

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