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Review

The Amber-Colored Liquid: A Review on the Color Standards, Methods of Detection, Issues and Recommendations

1
Institute of Sustainable Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Manipal University College Malaysia, Bukit Baru, Melaka 75150, Malaysia
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International Medical School, Management and Science University, Shah Alam 40100, Malaysia
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Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environmental, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600, Malaysia
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Institute of Power Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
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Wireless and Photonics Networks Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ludovic Macaire
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6866; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206866
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 3 October 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 16 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sensing and Imaging)
For most natural or naturally-derived liquid products, their color reflects on their quality and occasionally affects customer preferences. To date, there are a few subjective and objective methods for color measurement which are currently utilized by various industries. Researchers are also improving these methods and inventing new methods, as color is proven to have the ability to provide various information on the condition and quality of the liquid. However, a review on the methods, especially for amber-colored liquid, has not been conducted yet. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the subjective and objective methods for color measurement of amber-colored liquids. The pros and cons of the measurement methods, the effects of the color on customer preferences, and the international industry standards on color measurements are reviewed and discussed. In addition, this study elaborates on the issues and challenges related to the color measurement techniques as well as recommendations for future research. This review demonstrates that the existing color measurement technique can determine the color according to the standards and color scales. However, the efforts toward minimizing the complexity of the hardware while maximizing the signal processing through advanced computation are still lacking. Therefore, through this critical review, this review can hopefully intensify the efforts toward finding an optimized method or technique for color measurement of liquids and thus expedite the development of a portable device that can measure color accurately. View Full-Text
Keywords: amber; color; detection; liquid; color measurement amber; color; detection; liquid; color measurement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hasnul Hadi, M.H.; Ker, P.J.; Thiviyanathan, V.A.; Tang, S.G.H.; Leong, Y.S.; Lee, H.J.; Hannan, M.A.; Jamaludin, M.Z.; Mahdi, M.A. The Amber-Colored Liquid: A Review on the Color Standards, Methods of Detection, Issues and Recommendations. Sensors 2021, 21, 6866. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206866

AMA Style

Hasnul Hadi MH, Ker PJ, Thiviyanathan VA, Tang SGH, Leong YS, Lee HJ, Hannan MA, Jamaludin MZ, Mahdi MA. The Amber-Colored Liquid: A Review on the Color Standards, Methods of Detection, Issues and Recommendations. Sensors. 2021; 21(20):6866. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206866

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hasnul Hadi, Muhamad H., Pin J. Ker, Vimal A. Thiviyanathan, Shirley G.H. Tang, Yang S. Leong, Hui J. Lee, Mahammad A. Hannan, Md. Z. Jamaludin, and Mohd A. Mahdi 2021. "The Amber-Colored Liquid: A Review on the Color Standards, Methods of Detection, Issues and Recommendations" Sensors 21, no. 20: 6866. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206866

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