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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 434;

La-CTP: Loop-Aware Routing for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

1,2,* , 1,3
School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
Embedded Networked Systems Lab, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
College of Robotics, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100101, China
Department of Computer Science and Technology, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116023, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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In emerging energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSN), the sensor nodes can harvest environmental energy to drive their operation, releasing the user’s burden in terms of frequent battery replacement, and even enabling perpetual sensing systems. In EH-WSN applications, usually, the node in energy-harvesting or recharging state has to stop working until it completes the energy replenishment. However, such temporary departures of recharging nodes severely impact the packet routing, and one immediate result is the routing loop problem. Controlling loops in connectivity-intermittent EH-WSN in an efficient way is a big challenge in practice, and so far, users still lack of effective and practicable routing protocols with loop handling. Based on the Collection Tree Protocol (CTP) widely used in traditional wireless sensor networks, this paper proposes a loop-aware routing protocol for real-world EH-WSNs, called La-CTP, which involves a new parent updating metric and a proactive, adaptive beaconing scheme to effectively suppress the occurrence of loops and unlock unavoidable loops, respectively. We constructed a 100-node testbed to evaluate La-CTP, and the experimental results showed its efficacy and efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks; loop-aware routing; parent updating; adaptive beaconing energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks; loop-aware routing; parent updating; adaptive beaconing

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Sun, G.; Shang, X.; Zuo, Y. La-CTP: Loop-Aware Routing for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 434.

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