Next Article in Journal
Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management
Previous Article in Journal
On-Line Temperature Estimation for Noisy Thermal Sensors Using a Smoothing Filter-Based Kalman Predictor
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020434

La-CTP: Loop-Aware Routing for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

1,2,* , 1,3
and
4
1
School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Embedded Networked Systems Lab, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
3
College of Robotics, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100101, China
4
Department of Computer Science and Technology, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1629 KB, uploaded 2 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

In emerging energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSN), the sensor nodes can harvest environmental energy to drive their operation, releasing the user’s burden in terms of frequent battery replacement, and even enabling perpetual sensing systems. In EH-WSN applications, usually, the node in energy-harvesting or recharging state has to stop working until it completes the energy replenishment. However, such temporary departures of recharging nodes severely impact the packet routing, and one immediate result is the routing loop problem. Controlling loops in connectivity-intermittent EH-WSN in an efficient way is a big challenge in practice, and so far, users still lack of effective and practicable routing protocols with loop handling. Based on the Collection Tree Protocol (CTP) widely used in traditional wireless sensor networks, this paper proposes a loop-aware routing protocol for real-world EH-WSNs, called La-CTP, which involves a new parent updating metric and a proactive, adaptive beaconing scheme to effectively suppress the occurrence of loops and unlock unavoidable loops, respectively. We constructed a 100-node testbed to evaluate La-CTP, and the experimental results showed its efficacy and efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks; loop-aware routing; parent updating; adaptive beaconing energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks; loop-aware routing; parent updating; adaptive beaconing
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, G.; Shang, X.; Zuo, Y. La-CTP: Loop-Aware Routing for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 434.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top