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Sensors 2014, 14(2), 2280-2304;

Monitoring of Freeze-Thaw Cycles in Concrete Using Embedded Sensors and Ultrasonic Imaging

Instituto de Tecnologías Físicas y de la Información "Leonardo Torres Quevedo", ITEFI (CSIC), 28006, Madrid, Spain
Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, E.T.S.I.C.C.P., U.P.M. 28040, Madrid, Spain
Departamento de Vehículos Aeroespaciales, E.U.I.T. Aeronáutica, U.P.M. 28040, Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Harsh-Environment Applications)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3512 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


This paper deals with the study of damage produced during freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles using two non-destructive measurement approaches—the first approach devoted to continuous monitoring using embedded sensors during the cycles, and the second one, performing ultrasonic imaging before and after the cycles. Both methodologies have been tested in two different types of concrete specimens, with and without air-entraining agents. Using the first measurement approach, the size and distribution of pores were estimated using a thermoporometrical model and continuous measurements of temperature and ultrasonic velocity along cycles. These estimates have been compared with the results obtained using mercury porosimetry testing. In the second approach, the damage due to F-T cycles has been evaluated by automated ultrasonic transmission and pulse-echo inspections made before and after the cycles. With these inspections the variations in the dimensions, velocity and attenuation caused by the accelerated F-T cycles were determined. View Full-Text
Keywords: freeze-thaw cycles; monitoring; concrete; embedded sensors; ultrasound freeze-thaw cycles; monitoring; concrete; embedded sensors; ultrasound
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ranz, J.; Aparicio, S.; Romero, H.; Casati, M.J.; Molero, M.; González, M. Monitoring of Freeze-Thaw Cycles in Concrete Using Embedded Sensors and Ultrasonic Imaging. Sensors 2014, 14, 2280-2304.

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