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Immune Response to Tick-Borne Hemoparasites: Host Adaptive Immune Response Mechanisms as Potential Targets for Therapies and Vaccines

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Area Diagnostica Sierologica, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy
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Laboratorio di Riferimento OIE Theileriosi, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy
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Laboratorio di Entomologia e Controllo Vettori Ambientali, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, Via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy
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Central Laboratory of Advanced Diagnostic and Biological Research (CLADIBIOR), BIND, University Hospital “Paolo Giaccone”, Università degli studi di Palermo, Via del Vespro 129, 90100 Palermo, Italy
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SaBio, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC-CSIC-UCLM-JCCM, Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real, Spain
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Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228813
Received: 20 October 2020 / Revised: 12 November 2020 / Accepted: 12 November 2020 / Published: 20 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Immunology)
Tick-transmitted pathogens cause infectious diseases in both humans and animals. Different types of adaptive immune mechanisms could be induced in hosts by these microorganisms, triggered either directly by pathogen antigens or indirectly through soluble factors, such as cytokines and/or chemokines, secreted by host cells as response. Adaptive immunity effectors, such as antibody secretion and cytotoxic and/or T helper cell responses, are mainly involved in the late and long-lasting protective immune response. Proteins and/or epitopes derived from pathogens and tick vectors have been isolated and characterized for the immune response induced in different hosts. This review was focused on the interactions between tick-borne pathogenic hemoparasites and different host effector mechanisms of T- and/or B cell-mediated adaptive immunity, describing the efforts to define immunodominant proteins or epitopes for vaccine development and/or immunotherapeutic purposes. A better understanding of these mechanisms of host immunity could lead to the assessment of possible new immunotherapies for these pathogens as well as to the prediction of possible new candidate vaccine antigens. View Full-Text
Keywords: tick-borne hemoparasites; adaptive immune response; antigens tick-borne hemoparasites; adaptive immune response; antigens
MDPI and ACS Style

Torina, A.; Blanda, V.; Villari, S.; Piazza, A.; La Russa, F.; Grippi, F.; La Manna, M.P.; Di Liberto, D.; de la Fuente, J.; Sireci, G. Immune Response to Tick-Borne Hemoparasites: Host Adaptive Immune Response Mechanisms as Potential Targets for Therapies and Vaccines. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8813.

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